Tax deductibility of non-recurring items

Could someone please help me understand which of the following items are deductible for tax purposes: losses from discountinued operations, losses from accounting changes, losses from sale of assets or business egments, losses from legal settlements, and losses from write-offs.

I know some of these items are reported pre-tax and others after-tax, but which of them are actually deductible for tax purposes and which give rise to deferred taxes?

Thank you for the help.