Silver BananaTopicAuthorRepliesFreshness
+3Another Wells Fargo RantI couldn't not share this... [quote]"CNNMoney spoke to a total of four ex-Wells Fargo workers, including Bado, who believe they were fired because they tipped off the bank about unethical sales practices. Another six former Wells Fargo employees told CNNMoney they witnessed similar behavior at...652 sec ago
+2Deutsche Bank Has Been ShankedJust days after the 8 year anniversary of the collapse of Lehman Brothers, news has surfaced of a massive fine (much bigger than expected) coming for Deutsche: [quote]Today’s news that the U.S. Justice Department (DOJ) wants to slap a $14bn (€12.5bn) fine on Deutsche for mis-selling mortgaged...185 min 27 sec ago
+1Difficulty of transferring from Toronto to NY? Hello guys, I am just a senior in highs school in Ontario, Canada and I was wondering how difficult is it to transfer to NY BB or EB after doing your 2 year analyst gig at CIBC or a BMO type of bank. Thanks for any answers!...121 min 32 sec ago
0Wolf of Wall street life Hello there, What is the shortest way(Business school, jobs, ...) to have the same life(money,model,girls, coke ...) as the Wolf of Wall street. ...3829 min 14 sec ago
0Technology Banking (SF/West Coast)Hey guys, Can't seem to find too much information about this. Can anyone group together, in terms of deal-flow/"preftige"/exit-opps some of the other tech groups in SF/Bay Area? I think most people agree that GS TMT/MS/Qatalyst are the top shops, but how would JPM, CS, Citi, Barclays, BAML, UB...031 min 23 sec ago
0Former BoA female banker settles 'bro's club' bias lawsuitIs your firm/group a 'bro's club'? How much do you think the settlement was for? [quote]Bank of America Corp (BAC.N) has settled a lawsuit by a former top female banker who had accused it of being a "bro's club" that favored male employees over women, and punishing her because she complained abo...034 min 10 sec ago
+1Fairness Opinions: Fix them or Flush them!My post on the Tesla/SCTY deal about the ineptitude and laziness that Lazard and Evercore brought to the valuation process did not win me any friends in the banking M&A world. Not surprisingly, it drew some pushback, not so much from bankers, but from journalists and lawyers, taking me to task...039 min 17 sec ago
0Company Interview: Rothschild059 min 36 sec ago
0How do headhunters gather IB analysts' email addresses for PE recruiting?Title says it all. ...21 hour 9 min ago
+1Apple looking to purchase McLarenTalk around FT is that Apple is looking to acquire McLaren Technology Group. What do you guys think on this potential acquisition? Final purchase price? And will this be Apple's big new wave?...131 hour 21 min ago
0University dilemmaHey everyone, I'm a soon-to-be uni student and I needed some advice on which uni is the best overall and which one has a greater influence when it comes to placements in BB and EB. I intend to work in New York despite the university I go to and have a great interest in M&A. I'm applying to bar...21 hour 44 min ago
0Looking for Case Practice over online platformHello, Everyone ! I am Aman from India. I am looking some case practice partners who are ready for regular case practices over next 3 months. Please reply if you are interested....01 hour 48 min ago
0Company Interview: Wells Fargo Securities02 hours 2 min ago
0Private Equity Interview GuidesHi, I know that there are lots of resources for investment banking interviews and I was wondering if there are any specific resources for preparing for private equity or credit hedge fund interviews?...02 hours 6 min ago
0BNPP online tests (SA London) What is this ?? Hey guys! Did anybody pass BNPP's online tests ? If yes, what is the minimum score required ? Because I find them quit long, 12 minutes for 34 questions (maths) and 12m for 49 questions (verbal). I don't know what about you, but I did not have enough time to finish both tests... Even if ...02 hours 36 min ago
+1The Twitter Bidding War Starts Now The stock is up around 20% after sources announced that the company is moving closer to being sold. The company is expected to receive bids from many technology and media companies such as Google and Salesforce. [quote]"Twitter's board of directors is said to be largely desirous of a deal, accord...12 hours 49 min ago
0Chances of getting accepted into ms finance programs Hi, i just gave my GMAT yesterday and scored a 630 ( Q:48 , V:28 , IR:6) and i looking to apply into MS Finance programs in the US. My Profile: Indian student , Did my undergraduate in commerce with major in accountancy. GPA - 5.55/7 , 3-month internship experience in the Finance department of a ...02 hours 58 min ago
0How culturally diverse is your workplace really?Is there one dominant ethnic group or is there really cultural diversity in your workplace? Hmmmmmm?...43 hours 42 min ago
+34Classic Diversity RantHere we go again, boys. Diversity rant. Notice what I did there? I said "boys" because I'm sexist, right? Wrong. Am I sexist? Fuck yeah, if paying for everything and thinking (knowing) that men are better drivers is sexist. But no, I'm actually just speaking to my intended audience, heterosexual whi...553 hours 46 min ago
+3Leon Cooperman Charged With Insider TradingThe former CEO of GS AM has been charged with insider trading over his buying and selling of Atlas Pipeline Partners. [quote]"Cooperman allegedly used his status as one of Atlas’s largest shareholders to gain access to confidential information, according to a statement released Wednesday from ...83 hours 52 min ago
0Be a WSO Social Chair & Help Host WSO Meetups in Your City We've been getting more events posted lately (Paris/Atlanta/NYC) so let's keep the momentum going! We are looking for 1-2 WSO members in major cities across the world to be social chairs to help organize WSO meet ups / happy hours. Email me ([email protected]) to get an event on the calen...323 hours 56 min ago
+2Stephens Superday Class of 2017Hi folks, Has anyone heard back from Stephens for their superday invites? I was told they'll be sending it out this week, but haven't heard anything yet....53 hours 59 min ago
+9Five Ways Video Games Made Me a Better InvestorInstead of spending my free time outdoors, I, like many of you, spent my childhood playing video games. So how has that made me a better investor? There’s at least five very good reasons, so let’s get right into it. 1) Know the Rules The subtlety in this seemingly obvious statement lies i...214 hours 1 min ago
+1Why does everyone want Private Equity?Here's a question for all you Analysts in IBD. Why is everyone so obsessed with exit opps of IBD, group placement, and moving into PE? Why don't people want to stay on with banking and move up to the Associate position? From what I hear, the hours average out to about the same (70-90 hrs/wk) and ...1064 hours 13 min ago
0Acosta Sales and MarketingFull service sales and marketing service company in North America for consumer packaged goods....04 hours 14 min ago
0Undergrad UW Madison vs Penn State Uni for IBSup peeps. So I got into PSU and UW Madison and don't know who to go with. My main focus is on who will give me the best chance at landing a FT FO M&A IB position, and both have pretty strong programs that have helped other students do so. For the unaware: PSU Nittany Lion Fund placement- h...244 hours 15 min ago
+122017 Summer Analyst IB Recruiting Timeline Megathread PagesClick here for the 2017 FT IB Analyst Recruiting Megathread discussion page. APPLICATIONS / INTERVIEWS / SUPERDAYS Goldman Sachs Morgan Stanley J.P. Morgan Bank of America ML Citigroup Barclays Credit Suisse Deutsche Bank UBS Wells Fargo Applications open: Laz...3104 hours 33 min ago
0Transition from PWM to AM?Hi all, How feasible is a transition from the investment research/analyst side of PWM at a BB to the institutional Asset Management division of the same bank? Additionally, are there any banks in particular where this transition would be easiest? In general, how marketable are PWM (investing side) ...24 hours 57 min ago
+14A horrible surprise after Bring Your Kid To Work DayBack from a late summer hiatus, monkeys. I like to take some for myself during this season and get out to the Catskills to detox my liver and clear my mind. Just kidding. I was catching major shit sandwiches from my boss about taking vacation this summer so I basically spent every night in the of...75 hours 5 min ago
0Company Interview: Deloitte05 hours 6 min ago
+8Would you guys marry a poor chick from a poor family?I wouldn't and the MAIN reason is that I don't want her family become a liability to me. Trust me I have seen first hand, and it breaks families. I had a conversation with a friend last week about this subject and he told me I was too picky. He even said that he would marry a waitress; I told hi...2185 hours 12 min ago
0Yale Outperforms Harvard Once AgainFor the sixth year in a row, Yale's endowment has outperformed Harvard with its 3.4% investment gain. These are the stats for Yale's Ivy League peers: [quote]Harvard on Thursday said its investments declined by 2 percent, lowering the value of the largest fund in higher education by $1.9 bil...45 hours 14 min ago
0cherry bekaert llp05 hours 29 min ago
0cherry bekaert05 hours 33 min ago
0Central Banking - MBA at a M7Hello, I am currently working at the central bank for a G-7 nation as an economist in the financial markets group. I am mostly focused on the policy side , but also undertake research with Ph.D researchers when it comes to model building for the bank. My profile: Local top 3 business school i...05 hours 34 min ago
+1Stability / Job Security during a downturn...?Curious to get everyone's take on what job's and sectors within real estate are most inelastic to economic cycles. For instance, I would think that taking a job with a MF Developer right now might be risky - an asset class that is cyclical and arguably in the 8th+ inning - AND with a developer who ...55 hours 42 min ago
+332016 APD/ADC MBB Full Time Recruiting UpdatesHey guys, Thought I'd start another thread for those of us APDs/ADCs (read: spent too many years in school) who are applying for full time positions either earlier this year in the Spring (BCG) or now during the Summer. Let's try to provide sufficient data so it's less confusing: Current l...7545 hours 49 min ago
0What are some M&A/IPO deals Nomura have advised on?I was wondering if anyone knows of any deals Nomura have advised on - have my interview in a few days. The main one I can find is the dragon oil deal, however I wanted to have a couple more just incase....46 hours 8 min ago
0Company Interview: Goldman Sachs06 hours 15 min ago
+1Failure is NOT okay, plan B holding you back?Interesting read from FastCompany.com, a study found that back up plans can hold you back from achieving effort-based goals by reducing your motivation. According to Jihae Shin, assistant professor at Wisconsin School of Business: [quote] A backup plan can make you want to achieve the goal le...106 hours 21 min ago
0Monday's presidential debate: who you taking?As most of you know... Monday follows NFL Sunday. Monday also happens to be the first of 3 presidential yelling matches -- err debates. What are your thoughts on: Who do you think is proclaimed the winner of this debate? 1- Mark Cuban sitting front row. 2- Over/under on number of times ea...46 hours 23 min ago
0WHy Bank Fraud shouldnt be lethal!Why seeing illegal activity only made me feel rich and how sudden wealth and good fortune fail through my fathers ceiling only with the hope to find my views an vows which only made me try to tried truth seeking under the word of how god could and would entrust into my life without justifying my be...26 hours 26 min ago
0Need another way to make into investment banking? Check out the chance to when an internship with Credit SuisseAs the title says. If you check out the Credit Suisse Holt Valuation Challenge you have a chance to win an IB internship. Pretty cool huh? You need 0 background in finance, and good presentation skills. Read more about it here: http://www.holtvaluationchallenge.com/...06 hours 44 min ago
+9AMA: Endowments, Foundations, & Asset Allocators It's about time I do another post on here and rather than go into detail on a specific aspect of the industry I'm just going to open it up to a general AMA. The E&F (and asset allocators in general) industry is sort of a black box. Most people don't know a ton about the industry and it isn't necessa...96 hours 56 min ago
0Company Interview: Mizuho07 hours 17 min ago
+4Atlanta Real Estate Happy HourCome meet and network with fellow Real Estate WSO members at Gordon Biersch Buckhead. Address is listed below. 3242 Peachtree Rd NE, Atlanta, GA 30305...27 hours 22 min ago
+9MSF Class of 2018I created the last post about this time so I thought it would be a good time to get a new thread going. With many MSF/MMS programs starting their application cycle in the next couple of months I wanted to provide a place where people can post their profiles, ask questions or seek help. I've done thi...1597 hours 36 min ago
0Senior Process Improvement & Strategic Auditor * 2 Years in Audit = Business Facing RoleJoin a department created to be the talent pool for the finance and accounting organization. The company is #1 in the country in their space and a lot of growth ahead. The Chief Audit Executive is ONE of a kind and is known across the country for sustaining an A Player culture and being the key sour...07 hours 56 min ago
+1WUSTL MSF class of 2016 placements stats! They continue to shine. I will say they are even better than last year!!! 100% placed in the US which is big deal. The only issue I had with the program is that they accepted more international students than other schools (like 40% last year for the FC track). I see that they've reduced that num...98 hours 13 min ago
+1Banks already done with SA recruiting?Coming from a non-target (maybe a semi-semi-semi target), and have my first weekend trip coming up at the end of September. I know recruiting has been moved up quite drastically, but a contact mentioned that he thinks a decent amount of the banks that were in my top-10 have *already* picked their...118 hours 27 min ago
0Corpfin Analyst to Top 10 MBA Program, How to Prepare08 hours 32 min ago
0Accounting Manager * Private Investment Firm * Real Estate Focus * CPA Required *World-renowned and highly respected company. The Accounting Manager is a perfect opportunity for someone to make a move out of Big 4 into industry with a company known for developing careers and providing a strong intellectually stimulating environment. Join a culture of professionals who are Ivy le...08 hours 33 min ago
0KPMG Deal Advisory InterviewI have a first round interview coming up for KPMG's Deal Advisory rotation. Does anyone have previous experience with how this interview may be set up - specifically any technical questions I should focus on?...08 hours 40 min ago
+22HF PM AMAThere appears to be some demand for an HF AMA, so here goes... I believe this will be a communal effort with several people contributing, including myself. Briefly about me: I have been in the mkt for almost 15 years, always specializing in global rates. Currently, a PM in a reasonably large ...1148 hours 48 min ago
0Career Strategy for MBB, Engineering Grad, Low GPA (3.2)Hi everyone, Trying to plan and gain insight on the next best possible steps to get into MBB. Finishing up my engineering undergrad with 3.2 GPA, and my first two years are killing me (2.7 vs 3.8). I have intern experience at Shell (oil and gas) and Pratt & Whitney (aerospace), but MBB is still ...28 hours 51 min ago
0Star up Financial Analyst (FP&A) interview questionI got an interview from a start up firm and it's like a FP&A position, involving lots of planning& forecasting and facing management to provide business performance KPIs. The interviewers are hiring manager and CFO, so I'm wondering what questions should I prepared for? Thanks!...38 hours 57 min ago
0Company Compensation: TD Securities08 hours 59 min ago
+95What I Wish Every First Year Analyst KnewChimps, after working with all of our first years at our firm on several deals, I’ve found that I’m frequently getting asked for tips and tricks that I wish I had known as a new analyst. Now, that being said, this may or may not be helpful to share with the forum, but either way, I’ve listed o...289 hours 1 min ago
0Company Compensation: Compass Lexecon09 hours 33 min ago
0Wells Fargo Buying Opportunity?? Wells Fargo has declined over 10% in the last month. Buffet isn't commenting on the situation till November. John Stumpf took his beating from congress. The fines only account for 3% of the company's last quarter earnings. Buying opportunity or to many unknowns? ...19 hours 39 min ago
+10Ask Natalie from Accepted about Business School AdmissionsWSO is excited to have the experts from Accepted.com on board to answer applicant questions in the business school forum. Here is a message from Natalie who will be checking this thread every few days to make sure she is staying on top of questions: I'm happy to answer any questions you have reg...7999 hours 47 min ago
+12016 ULI Fall Meeting | Dallas, Texas | October 24-27What's happening, WSO Real Estate? I wanted to remind everyone here about the 2016 ULI Fall Meeting in Dallas, Texas from October 24-27. Signups are available now at http://fall.uli.org/ Last year in San Francisco I tried to get together a WSO meetup, but it didn't really go anywhere. If you're g...1410 hours 22 min ago
0 f ...010 hours 47 min ago
0Company Interview: Wells Fargo Securities010 hours 51 min ago
+10AMA: I’ve held Pre-MBA MM LBO, Growth Equity and Venture Capital investment roles for funds with $500M+ AUM to $5B+ AUMHi All - I'm ~5 or so years out of college. I did not do a formal 2 years of investment banking and was instead hired out of undergrad as an analyst at a fund. I've worked at several firms in several major US cities. I've worked at one smaller regional firm with $500M - $1B AUM and have since wor...3811 hours 12 min ago
0Company Compensation: JPMorgan Chase011 hours 26 min ago
0Voice Brokered Interest Rate Options and FuturesI support a rates option trader who still does voice execution. While he does do alot of more trading electronically, he does a decent amount of volume via brokers. Currently, the only way to get the brokered trades into our risk is by having the broker send an excel recap whereby we put the informa...111 hours 38 min ago
+1CS v Barclays IBD Summer Associate... .......711 hours 39 min ago
+1Park Hill Group Real Estate (PJT) I have an interview with these but can't seem to find out much about them online other than- "The Park Hill Real Estate Group (PHREG) is a top-tier global real estate private equity financial advisor and placement firm for high-quality real estate investment managers and operators. Our team execu...1411 hours 45 min ago
0Guggenheim Corporate Credit GroupHas anyone been through the interview process with this group or have any helpful insight about them? Have an upcoming phone interview and can't find much online about the group in general. Thanks in advance...211 hours 49 min ago
0S&T: Moving from London to USARecently started as a S&T grad in a London BB. I'm American but have been living in London the last few years (including uni). I love London, but I want to spend a few years in the States while I'm still in my 20s. I have citizenship so no issue there. In terms of location, NYC seems like th...011 hours 50 min ago
0Need help converting internship into FTSo I've been interning at a well known tech VC firm for the past 3 months, and I'm loving every minute of it. I had initially planned on doing 2 years of IB and then eventually move into VC. However, I'm re evaluating my option right now and I've decided that I want to go into venture capital immedi...011 hours 59 min ago
+2"Why Sales ?" (interview question)Hi all, I have an interview tomorrow for an Equity Sales Intern position. I wonder what I should answer to the question "Why sales ?". I guess one part of the answer should be "because I like to sell things", but what else do they usually want to hear ? Thanks a lot for your answers....2212 hours 3 min ago
0Question: breaking into IB, in my situationMy situation is kind of weird and I would be thankful for any advice you guys have to give me. I have a Economics degree from UT Austin, and I'm currently back in school for a Finance degree. I did not do too well pursuing a career in Finance, specifically IB or even analysis. So i decided to le...012 hours 23 min ago
+9We're Totally Living in a SimulationEver since I started writing for WSO again there has been one topic you guys have asked me to cover more than any other, and that is the notion that we're living in a simulation. Well, living probably isn't the right word. More like rendering. This line of questioning is nothing new (hell, Rene ...2012 hours 35 min ago
0Company Compensation: A.T. Kearney012 hours 46 min ago
0Some Questions about Product and Industry GroupsCorrect me if I'm wrong when I say product groups are focused on one deal type among various industries while industry groups are focused on multiple deal types within a single industry. I was doing some reading when someone said: [quote]In general, guys in industry groups tend to progress hig...113 hours 4 min ago
+12Sources and Uses: How to Find and Use Information in IBD (EBITDA example)There is a lot of emphasis on technical skills in IBD: being able to do DCF, good comps, analysis etc. But one skill that is often under used in practice is simply finding information in the most efficient way. I thought it might be useful for people to get list sources for commonly sought high q...813 hours 22 min ago
+7How to Get an Internship After Freshman or Sophomore YearLike I promised, I’m back to give an explanation on how to get an internship after freshman or sophomore year. I’m not offering any guarantees, but I can tell you that it has worked for me, and it depends on the effort you put in. Want a job? Earn it. I’m writing this more as a recommendation ...1014 hours 5 sec ago
0Any systematic/quantitative driven funds in Houston/Dallas?Not looking in particular for prop shops or small funds...Are there any notable HF out here with a more quantitative slant? Looking more towards a research role but not too familiar with the area....314 hours 2 min ago
+132017 FT IB Analyst Recruiting MegathreadWhen does FT IB Analyst recruiting typically start? I am a recent graduate (May 2017), and am wondering when banks will start taking resumes/interviewing online, or via other methods. Thanks guys!...42314 hours 4 min ago
0Moving from Sales and Trading to Hedge Fund/AMI just accepted an analyst position for S&T at a BB with desk placement to come a little while after starting. In the future (a few years down the line) I would like to work on the buy side and be closer to the investment decision. My question is three fold: 1. What would be better for someone wh...014 hours 10 min ago
0MM Mezz Fund InternshipHi guys, Do you think it is feasible over 6 months to be brought up to a competent Associate / Snr Analyst at a 4/5 person Mezz fund, with limited debt experience? I have an offer and need to consider day-to-day, how difficult is the job to be brought up to scratch in order to convert to full-...014 hours 27 min ago
0Computer skills in cover letterHi guys! I am currently crafting my cover letters for consulting internships. I have included my relevant skills and why I have those skills/where I got them. However, I was wondering if it is appropriate also to mention my computer skills in a brief sentence, saying that I am experienced in usin...214 hours 44 min ago
0Company Compensation: Ernst & Young LLP014 hours 53 min ago
+4What are some "easier" investment banks in NYC to get into?My gpa isn't the greatest (3.23) and I don't attend a target school but I'm still interested in getting into investment banking. What are some of the banks in NYC that have a lower standard to get into? ...3415 hours 7 min ago
+5What are the best Industrials-focused PE firms?Currently working on an industrials deal at my MM IB and absolutely loving it. Curious as to what the best industrials-focused PE firms are? I'd love to focus on this industry going forward. Thanks a lot guys. ...815 hours 13 min ago
0Company Interview: CirrusCPQ015 hours 24 min ago
0CirrusCPQCPQ- and Quote-to-Cash-focused consultancy specializing in Salesforce CPQ (formerly SteelBrick), Oracle CPQ Cloud (formerly BigMachines), the Salesforce platform and integrations, and associated tools and technologies....015 hours 46 min ago
0Company Compensation: Goldman Sachs015 hours 56 min ago
+29SunTrust Robinson Humphrey (STRH): An Extensive ReviewMod Note (Andy) - We're reposting the top discussions from 2015, this one ranks #13 and was originally posted 2/22/2015. I’m a long time reader and first time poster. I’ve seen a lot on the forum regarding STRH and I wanted to write a full review of the firm. I think the mini reviews in the F...6816 hours 20 min ago
+3Future of MBBHey all, Looking for some thoughts on how you guys, looking at those actually in the industry, think the strategy consulting market is changing or will change in the upcoming 5-10 years. If you're in college but would like to chip in a few thoughts that's cool, but the usual 'MBB is superior to a...1416 hours 21 min ago
+1Breaking into Life Science Consulting Hi All! I've seen a lot of posts about people transitioning from a PhD into life science consulting, but none regarding people who want/who have jumped ship with just a Master's Degree. I have a Master's degree in Biomedical Engineering and have been working at a startup biomedical company for ov...616 hours 55 min ago
0PE Lower MM CompLooking for knowledge about Lower MM, the current deal flow of that segment, general compensation, and working on lean teams. Any input? Recent Startup firm: -Revenues of $50-250M -EBITDA $10-50M -10 Person Firm -2-4 Analysts/Associates Healthcare/Industrials/Manufacturing ...617 hours 1 min ago
0Traditional IB Crossover QuestionI am about 2 years into my role in CRE banking, and I was interested in crossing over to traditional IB. I really love my role, but I was thinking about fixed income as a primary target, and getting out of SF and to NYC. I wanted to take a break and go back to school for an MBA, as well as increase ...017 hours 6 min ago
0Would you rather transfer to a target or go to a MIT/Princeton MSF Program?Curious to hear what you guys think. Speaking objectively, I think MSF programs have been somewhat devalued on this forum due to how new most programs are. MSF can be a cheaper route and seems as though that they are much more involved with getting someone their targeted job. Also appears that their...217 hours 32 min ago
0New Analyst Program - Investment Management Division (IMD) - Goldman Sachs EMEAHi all, I have recently been invited to attend 1st round interview for a New Analyst role in the Investment Management division at GS London. Any contribution related to the interview process/training program (in NY HQ?) would be much appreciated! Thanks a lot! ...217 hours 58 min ago
+17JP Morgan Winning Women 2016 threadThis thread is for people applying to the bank's AM Winning Women events this October in NYC and Chicago. But feel free to follow and/or post if you're in another division....21418 hours 2 min ago
0SB for Healthcare/Pharma/Biotech Industry PrimersI am looking for some healthcare/pharma/biotech primers, primarily from BBs. If anybody can provide copies of the most recent editions, particularly Deutsche Bank's "Global Pharmaceuticals: Pharmaceuticals for Beginners", they will receive 2 SBs for each primer. PM me please if you have any primers....4418 hours 13 min ago
+1Yahoo Hacked Big TimeIt's been revealed that half a billion Yahoo users have had their email and password info stolen in an absolutely massive hack. [quote]In July, 161 million people worldwide used Yahoo email on personal computers, a 30 percent decline from the same time in 2014, when the breach first occurred.[/qu...218 hours 26 min ago

Pages

WallStreet Prep Master Financial Modeling