EUR/USD Currency Cross

It refers to the price of a euro in dollars.

Author: Christy Grimste
Christy Grimste
Christy Grimste
Real Estate | Investment Property Sales

Christy currently works as a senior associate for EdR Trust, a publicly traded multi-family REIT. Prior to joining EdR Trust, Christy works for CBRE in investment property sales. Before completing her MBA and breaking into finance, Christy founded and education startup in which she actively pursued for seven years and works as an internal auditor for the U.S. Department of State and CIA.

Christy has a Bachelor of Arts from the University of Maryland and a Master of Business Administrations from the University of London.

Reviewed By: Adin Lykken
Adin Lykken
Adin Lykken
Consulting | Private Equity

Currently, Adin is an associate at Berkshire Partners, an $16B middle-market private equity fund. Prior to joining Berkshire Partners, Adin worked for just over three years at The Boston Consulting Group as an associate and consultant and previously interned for the Federal Reserve Board and the U.S. Senate.

Adin graduated from Yale University, Magna Cum Claude, with a Bachelor of Arts Degree in Economics.

Last Updated:November 30, 2023

What is the Euro to Dollar (EUR/USD)?

The Euro to (U.S.) The dollar exchange rate refers to the price of a euro in dollars. This is often written as the eurodollar exchange rate. But the "Euro-dollar" is not the same as the "Eurodollar."

"Eurodollar" refers to all U.S. dollar deposits in banks outside the U.S., including international branches of U.S. institutions. 

Note that the euro dollar is not a specific form of the U.S. dollar. Instead, it has the same exchange rate with foreign currencies as any other U.S. dollar.

Eurodollar transactions are carried out by banks not based in the United States. So, for example, when an American person deposits funds in a U.S. Bank in London, the funds can later be used to make loans to a firm in the United States. 

Such transactions are known as "Eurodollar transactions." However, all eurodollar transactions constitute unsecured credit.

Eurodollars were created due to a regulation established by the Board of Governors of the United States Federal Reserve System that prohibits banks from paying interest to depositors over a particular limit.

As a result, banks outside the United States attract clientele using U.S. dollars by offering higher deposit rates and lower lending rates than banks within the United States. 

Increases or decreases in the potential for eurodollar holdings, on the other hand, are directly related to deficits and surpluses in the United States government budget.

History of the Euro to Dollar Exchange Rate

This section discusses the euro-to-dollar exchange rate during the last 14 years, from 2008 to 2022. During that period, the currency rate fluctuated between 1.02 and 1.598. That range is from near parity (nearly a 1:1 exchange rate) to almost $1.60.

From 2008 through 2014, the Euro was rarely valued at less than 1.3 US dollars; nevertheless, between 2014 and 2015, it fell as low as 1.04. 

The F.X. rate stayed generally range-bound between 1.04 and 1.15 for three years before breaking out over 1.22 in early 2018.

The EUR/USD exchange rate in 2019 was 1.12. Due to COVID-19, the market was in a pretty hectic situation. 

In exchange rate was about 1.07 in 2020 and 1.22 in 2021. However, due to high inflation and circumstances in the European Monetary Union, it dropped to 1.02 at the start of July 2022. So, as of writing, it's very close to parity.

What is the Euro?

The European Union (E.U.) is a political union of 27 nations that have agreed to follow specific regulations. All members of the E.U. are also part of the European Monetary Union, which aims to integrate the E.U. economies and conducts monetary policy for the Eurozone.

The Eurozone comprises 19 E.U. member states that use the Euro. But some countries like Romania are E.U. members and don't use the Euro. 

While, in theory, Romania, Bulgaria, etc., could eventually join the Eurozone, they don't use the Euro, which is important to remember. While all E.U. members are in the EMU, that doesn't mean they're all in the Eurozone.

Note that Denmark has opted out of using the Euro.

The Euro is a free-floating currency, meaning it isn't pegged (fixed) to any other currency. As a result, it can freely change in value relative to other floating currencies such as the USD. However, some currencies are fixed to the Euro.

The euro currency was created due to the Maastricht Treaty in 1992. It was first used as an accounting currency in 1999. 

The Euro started circulating on January 1, 2002, and over many years, it became the recognized currency of the European Union. The Euro eventually replaced several E.U. member states' national currencies. 

As a result, the Euro integrates and reflects the condition of several European economies. The Euro also eliminates the need for currency exchange and makes business and travel easier for members of the European Monetary Union.

The Euro is the second most heavily traded currency in the forex market, after the U.S. dollar.

Since its inception on January 1, 1999, the Euro has spent less than two years priced at less than a dollar. In July 2008, the Euro reached a high of $1.60 per Euro.

A low euro-to-dollar exchange rate implies your U.S. dollar can buy more in the Eurozone, while a high rate means your dollar can buy less.

What is the Euro-Dollar (EUR/USD) Conversion Rate? How is it Calculated?

The Euro to U.S. dollar conversion rate is the number of U.S. dollars one euro buys.  

EUR/USD = USD per one Euro

It is the standard way of stating the exchange rate between two currencies. This article will offer an overview of the elements that influence the exchange rate, currency risk, and factors that investors and speculators should be aware of.

Be careful when looking up exchange rates, as various countries use "dollars," including New Zealand (NZD) and Canada (CAD).

Examples of the EUR/USD Exchange Rate

Here are a few examples of calculating the Euro to U.S. dollar exchange rate.

Example 1

Question: Given a EUR/USD rate of 1.25 and 364 euros, how many U.S. dollars would an investor receive if they traded them at the present rate?

Euros given * EUR/USD rate = USD received


364 EUR *1.25 = 455 USD

Example 2

Question: If the EUR/USD rate is 1.42 and an investor has 267 USD, how many euros would they receive at the present rate?

USD given/Exchange rate = EUR received


267 USD /1.42 = 188.03 EUR

Example 3

Question: What is the current Euro to U.S. dollar conversion rate if an investor converts 796 USD into 610 EUR?

USD exchanged /EUR received = Exchange Rate


796 USD / 610 EUR = 1.30 EUR/USD

Factors that Impact the Euro to Dollar Exchange Rate

The Euro has a variable exchange rate that is determined by three factors:

  • The European Central Bank's benchmark interest rate
  • Individual EMU member nations' debt levels
  • The strength of EMU member nations' economies

Forex traders react to these variables and buy or sell the Euro, determining whether the currency's value rises (appreciates) or falls (depreciates). 

When European economic development is robust or interest rates rise, traders are likely to forecast a gain in value. They then bid up the price believing that the value will rise.

Others may examine the same data and conclude that the value of the Euro will fall rather than rise; these traders begin to bid down the price. 

This causes the volatility and intricate interconnections behind forex pairings (for example, EUR/USD, USD/JPY) that decide the price of a currency at any particular time.

Currency Pair Fundamentals: EUR/USD (Euro/U.S. Dollar)

The U.S. and E.U. are two of the world's largest economies. The EUR/USD pair has become the most commonly traded pair in the world. 

It is influenced by many factors affecting the domestic economies of both parties, along with global financial trends.

As a result, the difference in interest rates dictated by the European Central Bank (ECB) and the Federal Reserve (Fed) influences the relative value of these currencies. 

Similarly, unfavorable news from the E.U. decreases the price of a Euro. The news of Italy's and Greece's government financial crises and immigration surge triggered a euro selloff, causing the pair's exchange rate to drop.

How to Read a EUR/USD Price Chart

Unlike a stock price chart, where the stated price directly indicates a stock price, the price shown on a currency pair price chart represents the exchange rate of the two currencies. 

An exchange rate shows how much of the currency you need on hand (base) to buy a unit of the desired currency (quote).

The above chart is from

As a result, a chart's directional signal matches, So green means the base buys more quote (appreciates) and red means it buys less (depreciates) In the base currency. In this case, the base is euros, and the quote is U.S. dollars.

Using the prior example, if a trader buys a long position in the EUR/USD currency at 1.2 around June 2021, as the rate falls to 1.04, the Euro depreciates (as seen in the price chart), or the U.S. dollar appreciates. 

The same Euro now costs $1.04 (fewer dollars), making the dollar weaker and the Euro stronger.

However, it is critical to recognize that the pair's base currency is fixed and always represents one unit. As a result, the rate does not represent the cause of the base currency's appreciation or depreciation.

The EUR/USD rate may rise because the Euro or the U.S. dollar is weakening. Either circumstance causes an increase in the rate (price) and a matching increase on the

pricing chart.

What is the Eurodollar Market?

Multinational bankers created the eurodollar market. A short-term money market allows banks to borrow and lend U.S. dollars. The eurodollar market is mostly centered in Europe.

However, in a broader sense, the eurodollar market includes all external lending and borrowing of the U.S. dollar. This can be anywhere in the world, not necessarily only in the E.U. The "euro" prefix refers to a currency held outside its home market.

In a nutshell, the phrase eurodollar refers to the external markets for the U.S. dollar.

The market for such dollars is only open for lending and borrowing in nations where the dollar is not the dominating currency because the term "eurodollar" refers explicitly to dollars.

Eurodollar transactions are distinct because they use dollars stored outside the U.S. The Eurodollar market draws capital by offering high-interest rates, more maturity flexibility, and a broader choice of investment options.

Even though the eurodollar market is entirely unofficial, it has become a vital feature of the international monetary system. It is one of the most important marketplaces for short-term investments.

Issues caused by the Eurodollars Market

The Eurodollar market takes non-banking public deposits in dollars and extends credit to the needy non-banking public.

The eurodollar market has created two major issues for countries that trade. 

First, there is a risk of over-extension of dollar credit by domestic banks in the country, which could result in high demand pressure on the official foreign exchange.

Second, the eurodollar market is another channel for the country's short-term international capital movement.

This may increase the volume of capital inflows and outflows, endangering the country's foreign exchange reserves and the effectiveness of domestic economic policies.

It has a destabilizing effect. It puts additional pressure on the exchange rate. As a result, the central bank may be forced to use its foreign exchange reserves to defend the peg in countries that maintain a fixed exchange rate with the USD. 

This may necessitate more U.S. dollars than the central bank possesses. If these additional reserves are not acquired, the current exchange rate may be jeopardized, resulting in a currency crisis.

Furthermore, considering eurodollars are not subject to U.S. banking rules, higher interest rates reflect the higher level of risk faced by investors. 

Advantages and Disadvantages of the Eurodollar Market

Some of the advantages and disadvantages of the Eurodollar Market are:

Advantages & Disadvantages
Advantages Disadvantages
It has provided a truly international short-term capital market due to the eurodollar's high degree of mobility. It may cause banks and businesses to overtrade due to exchange too often.
Eurodollars are useful for foreign trade financing. The lack of government regulation in the currency's native country makes the banking industry less disciplined and lowers the value of the national currency.
It has given financial institutions more flexibility in adjusting their cash and liquidity positions. It poses a serious risk of investors abruptly withdrawing large amounts of credit from a country.
It has enabled importers and exporters to borrow dollars for trade financing at lower rates than would otherwise be available. It has reduced the effectiveness of central bank monetary policy in the countries involved.
In the market, there are several alternatives. By dealing in numerous currencies in pairs, traders may take advantage of the huge diversity of the market. There are also plenty of fraudsters looking to steal money from unsuspecting investors. As a result, the investor must exercise extreme caution in finding a trustworthy, dependable trader who will not deceive and can provide superior profits.

Eurodollar Market And the International Financial System

Some of the impacts are:

  1. The dollar's position has temporarily strengthened because its operations of borrowing dollars have become more profitable than its holdings. 
  2. It makes it easier to finance balance-of-payments surpluses and deficits. Countries with a deficit balance of payments, in particular, tend to borrow funds from the eurodollar market, relieving pressure on their foreign exchange reserves.
  3. It has facilitated international financial cooperation and made business easier.
  4. The rise of the eurodollar over the last decade has contributed to alleviating the global liquidity crisis.

The following characteristics distinguish the Eurodollar market:

  1. It has evolved into a truly global short-term money market
  2. It is unofficial yet significant, with an estimated market size of $13.8 Trillion in 2016
  3. It is completely free of taxes and regulations
  4. It is a competitive environment
  5. It is a more adaptable capital market because the loan rates of dollars in the eurodollar market are significantly lower. 

The original users of the eurodollar market were business enterprises in Europe and East Asia that considered eurodollars to be a cheaper means of financing their imports from the United States.

Be careful not to confuse the Eurodollar market with the forex EUR-USD market, in which: 

  • The EUR/USD currency pair reflects the U.S. dollars necessary to purchase one Euro.
  • It is influenced by government policy, domestic economic conditions, and the economics of demand and supply in currency markets.

Researched and authored by Akhilesh Jagtap | LinkedIn

Reviewed and edited by Sara De Meyer | LinkedIn

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