Marginal Benefit

It is the maximum amount of what the customer is willing and able to pay for the extra

This term was launched by Friedrich von Wieser when a highly qualified economist was trying to give a brief about the prices and the economic reality of Marginal utility.

The word marginal in economics refers to a slight change, an increase or decrease in the good we have in the economy. The Marginal Benefit is the maximum amount of what the customer is willing and able to pay for the extra or additional good or service. In simple terms, it is the other satisfaction a person derives by acquiring a good or service.

The satisfaction derived from consumption is of value and worth to the customer, which in economics is termed a utility. This is the maximum amount of what a customer is willing and able to pay for the economy. 

It does have the "exception," for example, "the medications ." It does show the decreasing graph.

This tool has extensive use and can be used in the diverse and scattered market in the economy, for instance, in business and product research. The organization needs to evaluate and analyze the marginal cost first, then the benefit which it will be derived from any unit or the products. 

Over time, the utilization of the unit or the product decreases gradually, and the satisfaction they receive tends to decline and shows a negative graph. 

The marginal benefit has its significance and uniqueness as this tool has the best way to scale and measure the benefits which are equally acquired or required while checking on the different amendments at the quantity level.

It has become a worthy concept for marketing companies as numerous organizations use it to draw efficient and effective results. Further, it also gives the pricing policies an idea about how to set the prices and what they need to keep in mind.

Categories and the Formula of Marginal Benefit

This has different/distinguished categories, which break the help into many subcategories. The formula from who chooses is usually used to determine a commodity's benefits. 

1. Positive 

It can define where the happiness level is maximized by consuming some extra units of products. "Even pointing towards the point where the customer satisfaction increases."

For instance, the person who loves apples will have one apple, but eating the second apple in a row will also provide immense satisfaction.

2. Negative

This situation occurs when the consumers squander extra units above their satisfaction level, and a negative graph starts showing up.

3. Zero

This level of benefit, which is zero, is usually when the consumer consumes the units. Still, it does not add up, or "the" level up the satisfaction level remains the same." Moreover, it does show the negative outcome too "if" it is constant and steady. It is the point of satiety.

4. Maximum

In this, the consumers tend to consume and usually spend their money on those units which give a high level of satisfaction at a very minimal marginal cost. Customers typically like to put their money into these sorts of teams.

It can be calculated with the help of a formula. It clearly explains the level of satisfaction and where the consumer's fulfillment stands. Simply put, it is the change in total benefits divided by differences in quantity consumed.

The formula of MB: 

Change in total benefits/change in quantity "consumed."

1. Changes and amends in total benefit

This part" encompasses the number of changes in the total benefit obtained from deducting the overall benefits from the current consumption from the previous consumption.

2. Changes in units consumed

This part is about the changes in the number of units consumed. It is obtained by deducting the current usage amount from the previous squandered teams.

3. Assumptions 

"Certain assumptions exist while using or analyzing the marginal benefit/utility." The marginal benefit has different/distinguished categories, which break the help into many subcategories:

4. Utilities are not dependent on each other 

In this assumption, it is believed that utilities are not reliant on each other and neither it effects in any particular way, so they are highly independent according to this assumption; it also caters that the utilities in this are additive. 

5. The marginal utility of money is constant throughout

No matter the purchases made by the consumer and their money quantity keep declining and have negative growth, the money utility is regular in the whole process. The quantities purchased also vary significantly, but the money factor remains persistent. 

6. Cardinal measurement 

The assumption is that the utility of any commodity or unit is measured by giving significant or definite numbers. It also clearly explains the belief that the satisfaction of the consumer will get expressed in quantifiable or in numbers. 

Well, this unit is only measured or can give the number in the imaginary. In practicality, providing the number for the fulfillment received after consuming any particular commodity is difficult.

Since the marginal benefit is a core concept of marginal analysis, we chose to mention some assumptions under the marginal analysis. 

Law of Diminishing Marginal Utility

The law states that with all things held constant, as the consumption increases, the marginal utility tends to decline with the consumption of one additional unit. The law states the marginal utility descends to negative marginal utility as it will become inappropriate for the consumer to consume another team. 

The law refers directly to the idea and concept of decreasing pricing. It clearly explains the utility may reduce as the consumption of a good or service increases. It leads to consumers wanting to pay less than what they were paying. 

Formula of DMU

MU(x)= TU(x)-TU(x-1)

1. MU= Marginal Utility, which measures the amends and the changes in the fulfillment level by consumption.

2. TU= Total Utility. It is an aggregate and whole where the satisfaction is considered at a whole level.

According, a benefit that is obtained from the "x" unit is equal to distinction, which is majorly between the total utility gained from the "x" unit of the consumption and to utility of the "x-1" level of consumption.

Limitations "of Law of Diminishing Marginal Utility":

This law has the "assumption" that other things are constant. 

This law lacks applicability in some significant and rare collections, so the law is not applicable in particular units, for example, the AC.

Advantages "of the Law of Diminishing Marginal Utility":

It plays a role in determining the value and the worth of any product available in the economy. Moreover, this law also extends excellent help for finances. The country can use the law effectively and manage the utility of money.

Relation between total and marginal utility 

The total and marginal utility are interlinked with each other, as is explained.

When the marginal utility shows a positive result, it directly benefits the total utility as it increases and has upward growth. The consumer's pleasure is positive, and they are significantly satisfied with it.

When the marginal utility is zero, the total utility will be at maximum or reach the peak point, indicating that the consumer has achieved the highest level and no longer satisfies them.

When the marginal utility is negative, it also shows the direct impact on the total utility. As the to declines and shows downward growth, the consumer does not require this particular commodity or the units longer and does satisfy their fulfillment level.

The total and marginal utility are slightly different as the marginal utility shows a decline, which diminishes with the significant rise in the tub. On the other hand, the total utility shows the rising graph when the consumption is done and dusted. 

Marginal Social Benefit And Cost 

The benefits' amends have a strong coalition with the one extra unit of additional goods and services. 

The formula of Marginal social benefit

Marginal private benefit + External Benefit

The social benefit curve in terms of the public is the sum of all the vertical individual's marginal benefits. The people and private demand curves of marginal social benefit have contrasts and are opposite. 

The public goods curve of MSB is vertical, whereas the angle for private goods is horizontal. They are distinct from each other. 

Marginal social cost is a bit different compared to the benefit as in this, and the society brought the extra/additional production units. Moreover, it is also used by highly qualified economists in companies to reduce the cost of actions.

The MSC is calculated by keeping both the variables and the fixed costs. At the same time, the external cost used in the formula can be negative or positive, depending on the situation. 

The formula of Marginal Social Cost 


  • MSC = Marginal Social Cost 

  • MPC = Marginal Private Cost  

  • MEC= Marginal External Cost 

Applying the concept of MB & MC in the pandemic situation 

Looking at the pandemic and using these are excellent tools for analyzing any economic activity or anything that directly impacts the economy. In comparison, the changes or any new thing which occurs are worth it when the benefits exceed the costs. 

Regarding producers, It is all about the extra cost undertaken for making the additional cost. In this, they look for all the benefits and how they can have positive growth. 

In terms of consumers, it is more about the contentment they get. Moreover, they are also willing to pay extra money for consumption. 

As the covid hit, the tools used for applying and the countries were on lockdown. The marginal benefit tool is used for the edge as the infection will be less spread, but the country's cost is the loss of economy and people losing their job and income. 

Even though the half lockdown did not benefit as the spread was not less so clearly in this, the cost people and the government have to bear is high and exceeded the benefits as it was near the negligence, so the benefit graphs have declined growth. 

The lockdown situation could only justify, and it only provided benefits to preparing for healthcare and gathering the data in an organized way which would help. Still, the cost was way too much, and the suffering exceeded regardless of anything. 

The social benefit from the covid was significantly less as people cannot meet each other, so the contact was negligible. Due to this, physical contact has been affected. To sum up, the pandemic has affected the marginal benefit, costs, and social. 

FAQs regarding the Marginal Benefit

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Researched and Authored by Samiksha Mishra | LinkedIn

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