Asset-Liability Committee (ALCO)

It is in charge of a financial institution's asset-liability

A committee known as an asset-liability committee (ALCo.) is in charge of a financial institution's asset-liability and risk management operations. For a bank or other lending institution, ALCo. serves as a decision-making body, a monitoring group, and a risk-management committee.

An asset-liability committee (ALCo.), sometimes known as a surplus management committee, is a group of senior-management officers or top financial institution executives who are responsible for the institution's financial planning and risk management.

To distinguish between possible rewards and underlying risks, these issues can affect the bank's assets and liabilities.

An ALCo. must assess any market or liquidity risks connected to the institution's various operations. It develops the bank's borrowing and lending strategies, controls interest rate risks, and plans the balance sheet of the bank.

Its main objective is to ensure that the financial institution receives appropriate returns and maintains liquidity; in doing so, it will have a direct impact on the bank's net income and stock price.

This committee conducts oversight duties at the management level of a bank by developing management information systems (MIS) that are essential for efficient management of the institution's on- and off-balance sheet risks.

Let us first begin with an overview of risk management.

Risk Management Overview

The process of discovering, evaluating, and controlling risks to an organization's resources and profits is known as risk management.

These risks can be caused by several things, such as monetary unpredictability, legal responsibilities, technological glitches, strategic management blunders, unusual events, and natural disasters.

An effective risk management program aids a business in taking into account all potential perils. The relationship between risks and the potential negative cascade effects on the strategic objectives of an organization is also examined by risk management.

According to Mike Chapple, a senior director of IT at Notre Dame University, in his paper on risk appetite vs. risk tolerance, it is a very challenging process to accurately conclude "which risks fall within the organization's risk appetite and which require more controls and measures before they are acceptable."

Accepting some dangers won't require any reaction, while the risks can either be completely avoided, shared with another party, or even transferred.

Importance of Risk Management

Perhaps never before has risk management been more crucial than it is right now. Due to the increasing pace of globalization, the risks that modern organizations face have gotten more complicated.

The widespread usage of digital technology nowadays has led to the ongoing emergence of new threats. Risk specialists have nicknamed climate change a "threat multiplier."

The coronavirus pandemic quickly developed into an existential threat that affected the health and safety of employees, the means of conducting business, their capacity to engage with customers, and the reputations of businesses that responded poorly to the safety of their stakeholders.

For instance, banks and insurance firms have long had large risk departments that are often led by a chief risk officer (CRO), a position that is still not very prevalent outside of the financial sector.

Furthermore, since the risks that financial services organizations confront are frequently based on numerical data, they must be organized and thoroughly studied using well-established techniques and technological tools.

Risk scenarios in financial institutions can be substantially predicted.

It can be used to support other risk mitigation systems if a corporation establishes risk management as a disciplined and continuous process to detect and resolve issues.

Frameworks and Standards for Risk Management

The fundamental objectives of Georgetown's risk management strategy, which employs a best practices approach, are to comprehend the major risks and manage them within reasonable limits.

1. Framework for COSO ERM

The COSO framework, which was first introduced in 2004, was modified in 2017 to handle the growing complexity of ERM.

It offers a common ERM vocabulary, specifies fundamental concepts and principles, and offers explicit guidelines for risk management.

The framework, which was created with assistance from the five COSO member organizations and outside consultants, is made up of 20 principles divided into five interrelated components:

  1. Strategy and goal setting
  2. Governance
  3. Strategy and goal setting
  4. Review and modification
  5. Information, reporting, and communication

2. ISO 31000

The ISO standard, which was first published in 2009 and updated in 2018 by the ISO Technical Management Board Working Group, comprises a set of ERM principles, a framework to assist organizations in integrating risk management practices into operations, and a method for detecting, assessing, prioritizing, and reducing risk.

According to Cobb, the most recent ISO version is "a shorter, cleaner and more compact document that is easier to read" than the earlier one.

3. BS 31100 is a British Standard

The most recent iteration of this risk management code of practice, which was released in 2011, offers a method for putting ISO 31000's concepts into reality, including actions like identifying, assessing, responding, reporting, and reviewing.

4. The risk Maturity Model from the Risk and Insurance Management Society (RMM)

Although the RMM framework is currently being updated, the old 2006 version is still easily accessible. RMM provides firms with a list of seven characteristics of a risk management program and guides them in rating each one on a scale from absence to leadership level.

Risk Management Process

Numerous bodies of knowledge that describe the steps organizations must take to manage risk have been released by the risk management discipline.

The majority of these risk variables should be found, if at all possible. In a manual setting, these risks are manually recorded. All of this information is entered immediately into the system if the firm is using a risk management solution.

The ISO 31000 standard, Risk Management Guidelines, created by the International Organization for Standardization, or ISO, are among the most well-known sources.

Any type of entity can apply ISO's five-step risk management approach, which consists of the following steps:

  1. Recognize the dangers.
  2. Examine each possibility's likelihood and effect.
  3. Set risk priorities based on corporate goals.
  4. Handle (or address) the risk factors.
  5. Evaluate outcomes and make appropriate adjustments.

The ultimate objective is to create a system of procedures for identifying the risks that the organization faces, their likelihood and effects, how each one relates to the maximum risk the organization is willing to take, and the steps that should be taken to protect and enhance organizational value.

Understanding the Asset-Liability Committee's Role 

Companies can lower institutional risks that are often brought on by the shifting financial landscape of the world through financial planning and risk management. Each risk category is often handled separately, but in the current environment, it is necessary to regularly monitor and address all important risks.

Through MIS, or management information systems that are provided to the members of the ALCo., the affective appraisal of a company's on- and off-balance account risks are communicated.

The management of market risk tolerances, the establishment of MIS reports, the annual review and approval of the liquidity and funds management policy, and the development and maintenance of a contingency funding plan are among the duties of the members of the ALCo.

To effectively manage the market risk tolerance and establish useful MIS reports, ALCo. must be able to develop and review specific activities, such as agreements on borrowing and repurchasing, reports on funding use and sources, adverse scenario analysis, interest rate risk analysis, and asset and liability management.

Special Considerations

Management must communicate and comprehend the relationship between ALCo.'s plans, practices, and policies and the company's objectives and risk tolerances defined by the Board.

After all, the degree of the company's earnings depends on the level of risk that they are ready to take, similar to the positive relationship between risk and return in investments and for-profit ventures.

The strategies are meant to outline the company's liquidity management, convey liquidity risk tolerances, and identify the degree to which the essential components of fund management are centrally managed or distributed throughout various departments of the organization.

It is thus concluded that to be competitive in the current high-risk business world; an organization should be capable of managing risk while maintaining profitability.

Since the objectives of ALCo. are dependent on the flow of cash, their actions and strategies must take into account several variables, including the liquidity of the company's assets, its liabilities, and the operating cash flows that must be generated to cover any unexpected shortages in funding.

Example of an Asset-Liability Committee

An asset-liability committee must be established by resolution, which the executive Board must then follow.

The ALCo. is made up of at least seven members with the ability to vote for one year and the chairman of the committee, who is chosen by the Executive Board.

The chair, who will also serve on the committee for one year, appoints and presents the non-voting members.

As one of the most significant executive committees in the organization, the ALCO is ultimately responsible for ensuring that the company's balance sheet is strong and will remain so over the long term.

An asset-liability committee typically consists of subcommittees such as the funding group, pricing committee, credit risk committee, and balance sheet management committee.

ALCo. meetings are typically held every two weeks since risks should be continuously monitored.

If more than half of the voting committee is present and votes in favor of the resolution at these meetings, they will have the authority to offer a resolution on a specific matter.

When the committee approves a resolution, it effectively becomes executable by all of the staff.

Each ALCo. the framework is different; there is no common framework for ALCo. across all enterprises.

Approaches to Risk Management and the ALCo.

A larger, more thorough risk management strategy for financial management may include an ALCo. which can provide a solid risk management-based strategy to ensure that financial activity delivers longevity and suitable diversity by setting up the relevant oversight committees.

Different tactics and plans will be taken into account, and the possible influence on profitability will be assessed in an efficient ALM process.

For instance, if a financial institution decides to experiment with a new type of lending to boost the yield on earning assets, it will need to assess the potential yield from the new products as well as the cost of financing the assets and all associated costs of securing the new business.

The ALCo., together with other leadership committees, can speak with a sobering voice to those who want to take an unnecessary risk affecting the bank's assets.

The committee can offer guidance on a hedging plan that can assist in reducing risks while preserving long-term profitability and market competitiveness.

Asset Liability Management Techniques

Regulators' attention to Asset Liability Management (ALM) has shifted from interest rate risk to a more comprehensive assessment of all balance sheet risks in the banking industry.

1. Asset and Liability Gap Analysis

The disparity between rate-sensitive assets and liabilities is referred to as a gap.

The difference between the Rate-Sensitive Asset and the Rate-Sensitive Liabilities is known as the GAP.

Rate Sensitive Asset/Rate Sensitive Liabilities is the GAP Ratio.

2. Asset Coverage Ratio

The asset coverage ratio, which estimates the number of assets available to settle obligations, is another crucial measure for managing assets and liabilities.

Asset Coverage Ratio is calculated as (total debt minus intangible assets minus current liabilities).

The more assets the firm has to pay off its debt, the greater the asset coverage ratio it will have. A healthy asset coverage ratio is said to be greater than 1.

Leaders of banks and credit unions are also keenly conscious of regulatory requirements for providing assurances of the institution's long-term existence and solvency.

These ratios, which are sometimes described as regulatory capital ratios, make ensuring that institutions have enough capital to survive unfavorable financial or economic conditions.

Regulations now require larger levels of capital than ever before due to the global recession of the late 2000s, which may cause institutions to take less risk.

Various Industries' Asset Liability Management Case Studies

A full range of analytical tools is offered by contemporary ALM systems to address these problems in an integrated and adaptable manner.

Additionally, these tools enable users to quickly build calculations and reports and gain access to the information they need to determine the outcomes.

1. Banking Sector

Banks act as a financial bridge between clients and upcoming projects. Customers provide banks with a deposit that requires them to pay interest.

They issue loans using these deposits and are paid interest on such loans. To secure net interest revenue and the ability to repay client deposits at any moment, banks must employ effective asset-liability management.

2. Insurance Businesses

Life and non-life insurance are both offered by insurance firms. Property and auto insurance fall under non-life insurance. Insurance firms are paid by other parties, but they are also required to provide lump sum payments if and when they are needed.

They must make sure they hold sufficient to cover these responsibilities at any sudden moment.

3. Benefit Strategy

Benefit programs like future retirement plans deduct money from employees' paychecks and pay it back in the future at the appropriate rate when the employee retires. These organizations must thus ensure they have the resources necessary to pay for these obligations.

ALCo. as an Investor

Being a wise investor entails making investments in businesses that take proactive measures to maintain their long-term success.

Researching which businesses have a sufficient and robust ALCo. may help you decide where to place your money and if it will secure your assets and help you get a sufficient return on investment or put you in danger of losing your investment.

Making financial decisions and managing your portfolio can be aided by knowing who is appropriately addressing the risks being taken with your shares. All participants in the financial system profit in a good way from an ALCo. that is robust and capable.

The written policy limitations of a financial institution take risk tolerances into account. These policy limitations, once defined, serve as a guide for the amount of risk that can be assumed while still maximizing revenue. 

Monitoring these board-established policy boundaries for volatility to earnings/equity, profitability, credit quality, and liquidity in various rate environments is one of ALM's duties.


Within several categories of financial organizations, the Asset-Liability Committees offer guidance on risk and asset management. ALCos. Search for discrepancies or possible traps that might jeopardize the institution's overall profitability and solvency.


The committee is crucial in promoting discussion and bringing up concerns about risk, liquidity, and prospective interest rate changes.

A full range of analytical tools is offered by contemporary ALM systems to address these problems in an integrated and easy-to-adapt manner.

Additionally, they enable users to quickly build calculations and reports and gain access to the information they need to understand the outcomes.

ALCos. can help investors choose their investment portfolio and correctly manage the risks they are taking with their financial institution.

To reduce risk, a financial institution could employ its ALM model. However, as was already mentioned, there is always a risk along with a possible reward.

With that in mind, it stands to reason that where there is no possible risk, there is also presumably no potential return, and if a financial institution is not making money, it is probably not expanding or surviving.

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Researched and authored by Charbel Yammine | LinkedIn

Edited by Abdul Aziz Rasheedy | LinkedIn

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