Bull

An individual, particularly an investor, who believes the market or a specific industry will rise in value in the future.

A Bull in finance is described as an individual, particularly an investor, who believes the market or a specific industry will rise in value in the future. These types of investors make investments with the assumption that they will later be able to sell them at a higher price.

This market is most often used to refer to the stock market that is rising or is expected to rise for large periods of time. However, It can be used to describe anything that can be traded (bonds, real estate, etc.).

This was chosen as an alter ego to the bear. A bear, in financial terms, is described as an individual, particularly an investor, who believes the market or specific industry will decrease in value in the future.

It got its name from the animal. The name comes from how the animals attack and strike their opponents. For example, a  bull uses its horns and strikes upwards to mimic the direction the market or industry is expected to go. 

A bear can strike down with its claws when attacking its opponents. Therefore when the trend is headed downward, it is known as a bear market.

Investors in this market are thought to be more optimistic as they look for markets that are expected to rise. Bear investors are the opposite and are a little more pessimistic.

These markets that are on the rise usually coincide with the state of the economy, so in the instance of the bull, the economy is likely on the rise or in a good place. In addition, it usually aligns with a strong gross domestic product (GDP).

These markets typically fall in line with the four phases of the economic cycle:

1. Expansions.

Increases in economic variables, including income, supply, and demand, are referred to as expansion. There is a rise in consumer confidence at this point.

As a result, consumers spend more money and can comfortably pay off their obligations. Many businesses expand during this stage and prosper.

2. Peaks

In a business cycle, the peak phase comes after the expansion phase.

A business cycle's peak occurs just before important economic indicators decline, like Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Nonfarm Payrolls, Unemployment Rate, The Price Indexes (CPI and PPI), Consumer Confidence, Consumer Sentiment, and Retail Sales, etc. 

Prices are at their highest, and the economy may "overheat," which would mean that businesses would no longer be able to meet consumer expectations.

3. Contractions

This phase comes after the peak phase. Businesses decline and come down from the previous high when the business cycle enters its contraction stage.

Usually, in this phase, inflation is high, so the fed increases interest rates to bring down inflation which also impacts businesses as they have to borrow money at higher interest rates now.

In this phase, business owners identify ways to strengthen their financial position, such as cutting costs or boosting their competitiveness.

4. Troughs

This phase comes after the contraction phase. There is a large reduction in both supply and demand at this point, and workers do not have as much inventory. In the trough stage, it's usual for businesses to lay off workers or shut down.

This kind of market is a good indicator of economic expansion, as the public typically drives markets.

Taking advantage of this market

Investors should do their best to purchase early on to take advantage of this market and try to resell at its peak. Unfortunately, it may be hard to determine when the peak is. Many strategies can be used during this period, each involving varying degrees of risk.

This type of market involves a lot of optimism. The most common thing people do when investing in something is to buy and then sell at a later date. People only really do this when said investment is expected to rise. The buy-and-hold approach is very popular among investors.

Much like the buy-and-hold approach, there is the advanced buy-and-hold method. However, this method comes with additional risk as it requires you to keep adding to your holdings as long as it increases in value.

The Retracement phase is another way to take advantage of this market. A retracement is a point in the trend of an investment where the direction gets reversed for a short time before continuing its upward journey.

It is very unlikely for the trend to have a strictly increasing pattern; there will be moments where the direction gets reversed.

During these backward movements, some investors will buy in hopes that the investment will continue going in the direction it originally headed. This will allow the said investor to purchase initially at a discounted rate.

Additionally, an investor might capitalize by a process known as full-swing trading. Investors try to pull maximum profits through proactively short selling and using additional techniques when shifting in the market occurs.

Each strategy still involves a decent degree of risk, as it is hard to determine when a market is at or reaching its peak. Though this is true, assessing trends and preventing large drops is easy, so much risk is minimal.

Characteristics

This market phase is usually a good indicator of a move up in the economy, although this is not always the case. 

An increase in GDP and consumer spending usually reflects an expansion period. 

  • Investor confidence goes up.

The constant rise in the stock market leads investors to believe that the markets will continue to rise. This is because the consecutive incline in the market will cause investors to keep buying, and because of supply and demand, stock prices will continue to rise.

  • Company confidence goes up.

With investors continuing to invest, it affects the company's confidence. As a result, the company will start to look into the future and what it can do in terms of expansion and begin to invest in itself.

  • Employment rates increase

With companies' expansion and building up, they will hire extra people to fulfill the additional roles created.

Additionally, there will be a rise in wages because of increased competition between companies for workers.

  • More money to spend

The wage increases give consumers the extra money they can spend. In addition, due to the increase in wages, consumers will feel like money is rolling in quicker and with a greater abundance, allowing them to purchase and invest more.

  • Inflation

The additional wage increases will naturally cause the prices of goods and services to. This is just because of the influx of money circulating among individuals.

These are some of the main and most frequently occurring consequences of this market in the economy.

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Causes

This market phase is a byproduct of the stock market's natural boom-and-bust cycles. A bull market's appearance marks the beginning of an expansionary phase and the eventual peak of the economy

There are many reasons why this market starts, which are explained in detail in the following points.

1. Economic strength

Countries with fundamentally solid policies, a proper implementation system to assure adequate production of products and services, and favorable market conditions that promote sales are more likely to experience these euphoric markets.

2. Big corporations

The major benchmark indices, a key indicator of whether the stock market is in a bull or bear market, are primarily made up of large-cap corporations, and when a large-cap corporation starts to show bumper results. Their stock price tends to rise higher.  

When these large-cap corporations' prices move, they move the whole market index with them, which can also lead to such a market condition.

Small and mid-cap companies are more susceptible to unsystematic changes, which can lead to a deceptive indication of the general market's development tendency. That's why we can only trust large-cap companies. 

Rising benchmark index points are mostly a sign of this market as large-cap businesses show considerable long-term growth.

3. A boom in the business cycle

A boom period, or upward swing in the business cycle, occurs when an economy's productive potential and growth rates significantly increase, as seen by growing GDP rates and positive market trends. 

Additionally, a nation's unemployment rates are extremely low, and its per capita income is increasing. As a result, speculative demand is increasing due to more money available to spend, pointing to a positive market trend.

Advice when Investing in a Bull market

You should follow a few main tips and tricks when investing in this market to help keep you ahead of the game. For example, you should not try and time the market, diversify your investments, and be aware of consumer patterns.

1. Avoid timing the market

This is because it is almost impossible to time a market accurately. Even professionals have yet to master this skill. So you can risk selling too late and far too early and missing out on more profit.

In this situation, the best thing to do is to back out of the market gradually to avoid major losses. However, you should never try and pull out when you think the market is at its peak. Instead, a good strategy to follow is dollar-cost averaging.

2. Maintain diversification

It is important not to put all your eggs in one basket when the market is growing rapidly. A lot of the time, markets and stocks will increase quickly but stop growing just as fast. This is why it is essential to learn how to diversify yourself effectively.

3. Aware of the consumer

A company's primary target is the consumer. Markets keep proving this method to be effective. In addition, this method provides a bit of safety in terms of downturns in specific markets.

The reasoning behind these tips is that it is impossible to predict when the bull market is ending. However, inevitably it always ends eventually. In general, the stock market continues to rise as long as there is growth in the economy. 

You can invest your capital for the long term almost any time without needing to time the market through an index fund or an ETF (Exchange Traded Funds), provided you don't need your money in the short term. You will always beat the bank FD and other savings account interest rates.

Investors should always keep their goals and plans in line and try not to stray from them. It is important to keep an eye on the movement of stocks and whatever markets are rising.

How to invest in this market

No matter how the market is performing, it would help if you kept the long term in mind to build wealth over the long run. While buying stocks at a discount can be prudent, trying to time the market is foolish. Every market has great long-term companies to offer.

Learning the concept of dollar-cost averaging is one wise move. This entails investing equal dollar amounts at predetermined periods, enabling your portfolio to profit from corrections and collapses, and helping you invest during a euphoric market phase.

Take the longest market of such a kind in the stock market history, which lasted from 2009 to 2020, as an illustration. The S&P 500 bottomed out in March 2009 after falling due to the 2008 financial crisis and rose until early 2020, when the COVID-19 epidemic sent stocks tumbling.

If you could predict when bull or bear markets would start and conclude, you could change your investments to benefit from the shifting conditions. In actuality, it's typically too late to profit from a change once investors become aware of the phase of the markets.

Regarding stocks, it's crucial to remember that they are a component of your long-term investment strategy and that you will encounter markets during your investing career. 

These markets are more likely to occur than bear markets because stocks tend to increase in value over time. So think about investing in low-cost index funds over the long term, and be prepared for ups and downs.

Dollar-cost averaging is one strategy that can assist you in profiting from the market's fluctuations. You can purchase more shares when prices are lower and fewer when prices are higher by consistently making contributions and investments over time. 

These payments may be made to your personal traditional or Roth IRA or a business retirement plan like a 401(k).

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Researched and authored by Rishabh Bhoria | LinkedIn

Reviewed & Edited by Ankit SinhaLinkedIn

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