Shareholder Value

The financial worth of a company's shareholders.

Shareholder value is the financial worth of a company's shareholders. SHV may rise due to the company's overall success, increasing capital gains and dividends.

An increase in the company's revenue, margins, cash flows, etc., will lead to an increase in shareholder value. The management is in charge of strategies and capital allocation that will help the company increase its SHV.

If the returns on investments and capital are high, the company can pay out more dividends to its shareholders. Some changes in cash flows may result in a decrease in SHV.

When a company can generate a return on investment that exceeds the cost of the investment, shareholder value is created.

Companies can allocate their resources in ways that increase or decrease value, just as moving your money from a checking account earning 1% annually to an investment earning 2% creates value.

The ability of management to allocate resources, or capital, is the primary driver of shareholder value creation or destruction.

For example, an automobile company's management team may be faced with decisions regarding the construction of:

A new plant, the purchase of new equipment, the investment in technology, the closure of a business line, the acquisition of a company, or the purchase of back stock.

SHV rises when a company earns a higher return on invested capital than the cost of the capital, resulting in a supernormal profit. A company can achieve this by increasing revenue, operating margin (by reducing expenses), and/or achieving capital efficiency.

How to measure Shareholder Value

Many investors look at a company's fundamentals to determine SHV, such as return on equity (ROE), which measures the return on net assets, or return on invested capital (ROIC), which measures a company's return on invested capital.

A stable or growing ROE indicates a company that understands how to reinvest into assets to increase shareholder value. Companies with a positive ROIC are also better at creating value.

Measures are essential to value investors, who believe that a stock's price does not always reflect its actual value but rather the price that the market is willing to pay at the time.

Value investors attempt to assess a company's "intrinsic" value by determining whether it has a high ROE, growing free cash flow, expanding operating profit, and growing book value - all of which would indicate increasing SHV.

Some investors can assess SHV through softer metrics such as innovation and competitive dynamics, which are harder to measure but can be just as important.

Because management's ability to allocate resources is the primary driver of SHV creation or destruction, assessing management efficiency and ability by looking at previous decisions is a very useful indicator of their ability to increase SHV. 

How to Add Value to Shareholders

Every publicly-traded company's primary goal is to establish and increase shareholder value. Management teams can create and increase SHV in a variety of ways:

1- Higher Profitability:

Many new businesses are not yet profitable. When a company that has been losing money starts making money, SHV is created. Profitable companies trade at higher prices than companies that are still losing money.

2- Increase earnings per share (EPS): 

An increase in the EPS makes more money available for reinvestment, debt servicing, retained earnings, etc., which has a positive impact on the SHV.

The EPS increase can sometimes be a result of share buyback, so it is necessary to adjust for buyback before looking at the EPS.

3- Increase your sales:

Companies can sometimes increase SHV by generating revenue that outperforms investors' expectations. Because rapidly growing revenues can indicate future solid earnings potential.

Growth-oriented companies frequently prioritize increasing sales over capturing profits. As a result, strong sales performance can increase SHV in the form of a rising stock price.

4- Increase your free cash flow:

Growth-oriented businesses frequently have negative free cash flows (FCFs), which means they have cash shortages after accounting for capital expenditures. 

Companies with plenty of cash on hand are best positioned to pursue new opportunities or repurchase shares. A company that transitions from negative to positive FCF generates SHV, and companies that continue to increase their FCF generate SHV.

However, if the company does not have a high cash flow, this does not imply a drop in shareholder value; if the company had a higher ROIC than the cost of capital, this would result in SHV.

5-Inventory management: 

According to OSCM theories, effective inventory management leads to increased sales, profits, and profitability. 

According to empirical findings from the retail sector, it is not necessarily the gross or profit margin that matters, as margins may be low, but inventory turns are high. This will eventually result in a high ROI and absolute profits.

Lowering inventory also allows for greater strategic flexibility or agility, allowing the company to better adapt to market and technological changes. Low inventory propels production, streamlines the supply chain, and reduces used lot sizes.

With the argued inventory linkage to a company's financial success, it is evident that inventory must play a role in creating shareholder value. 

If the inventory is so crucial to short-term financial success and strategic flexibility, it must be linked to shareholder value.

6- Long-term investment:

The impact of investor horizons on a wide range of corporate decisions contends that long-term investor monitoring results in decision-making that maximizes shareholder value. 

Long-term investors, we find, strengthen governance and restrain managerial misbehaviors such as earnings manipulation and financial fraud. They discourage a variety of investment and financing activities while promoting payouts.

7- Merge with or acquire a company:

A company can increase SHV by acquiring or merging with another. The combined entity will gain market share, be better positioned to enter new markets, and will most likely save money by consolidating back-end operations. 

The new organization is also expected to generate higher EPS, which will boost the company's share price.

The impact of a merger announcement on the share price will vary depending on the specifics of the transaction as well as market perceptions of the transaction's value and the likelihood of completion.

To reduce the risk of such erosion, some mergers may include a collar agreement that increases the exchange ratio if the stock to be exchanged falls below a certain level. 

Such collars limit one company's downside at the expense of its merger partner and that company's shareholders, but they are less common in mergers of equals or near-equals.

Calculating the Value of Shareholders:

The primary goal of investors is to generate higher returns on their investments. As a result, investors must understand how to compute their SHV. The following are the four steps for calculating SHV:

Step 1: entails deducting the preferred dividends of the company from its net income. Preferred dividends are dividends paid by a company to preferred stockholders.

In contrast, net income is the total earnings of the company after depreciation, operating and non-operating expenses, taxes, and interest are deducted.

Step 2: The second step involves calculating the company's earnings per share. To calculate this, divide the company's available income by the total number of outstanding shares.

Step 3: In step three, you must add the stock price to the per-share earnings. Assume, for example, that a company is selling its stock at $40 per share. In this case, you must add $40 to the earnings, which are $2 per share in this case, to get $42.

Step 4: In this stage, you must multiply the total from stage three by the total number of shares held by an individual shareholder. Assume, for example, that a shareholder owns ten shares. In this case, the shareholder has a SHV of $142 ($42 x 10 = $142).

Is maximization of shareholder value a healthy defined target for organizations?

Maximizing shareholder wealth is a precise and clear decision and a suitable and operationally feasible goal. 

The market price of a firm's common stock represents SH wealth, and stock prices clearly illustrate the magnitude, timing, and risk associated with profits that stockholders hope to receive, so management should drive the stock price as high as possible.

Furthermore, the greater the risk of receiving a future benefit, the lower the value assigned to that benefit by investors.

Nowadays, no country, not even the shareholder-friendly United States, has a legal requirement that managers act solely in the best interests of the shareholders. In fact, the law allows directors to consider other interests.

Although a firm that is willing to make an open commitment to its shareholders appears to perform better than others. 

No case makes SHV maximization the society's most desirable corporate target, nor do competitive markets for goods, capital, and labor force managers pursue that specific goal.

Furthermore, markets are incomplete, which means that profit maximization is not well defined, and potential conflicts of interest cannot be avoided or resolved in many cases. 

Financial research has shown that stakeholder-oriented firms are usually more successful than shareholder-oriented firms because market forces force them to be.

Managers can survive competitive challenges even if they do not maximize economic profits.

It appears that capital markets do not leave managers with any other option but to maximize shareholder interests and thus maximize the company's welfare. 

Suppose investors who own a large number of shares in a company believe that their stock is declining and that they are losing money. In that case, they may try to intervene and influence decision-making, which could imply that managers are jeopardizing their jobs.

Overall, it is the combination of various market forces that can influence or even force managers to act in the best interests of stakeholders. 

As previously stated, the basic principles of SHV maximization are not clearly defined for the market and, even if they are, are not always reasonable or possible in practice.

Corporate social responsibility is one of the primary goals that organizations strive for because it keeps them competitive while also maximizing SHV. Let us examine CSR and how it affects the overall SHV approach.

Social Responsibility

The idea that organizations have an external environment with interest in or who are affected by what the organization does expresses how managers and organizations respond to ideas of corporate responsibility.

Some ethical investors advocate for environmental protection. Ethical investors refer to people who only invest in companies that meet specific criteria for ethical behavior. 

These stakeholders can have a negative impact on the organization and its environment if they disagree with the manager's policies, which include things like:

  • Negative coverage in the local and national media.
  • Protests and direct action.
  • Actual or threatened legal action.
  • Withholding necessary planning or other permissions for operations.

If managers can meet shareholders' expectations, they will keep their support and increase SHV. 

The expectations of financially oriented investors include not only a high return on investment but also a strong corporate responsibility and reputation.

Corporations, after all, have a significant social and environmental impact and role. Businesses require societal approval to make a profit and, as a result, to return value to their shareholders.

If policymakers, investors, and executives are serious about addressing corporate social responsibility, corporate governance must be accompanied by global corporate social responsibility, 

which is defined as business practices based on ethical values and respect for the company's internal and external environments, such as employees and committees.

Shareholders cannot simply rely on market forces to ensure corporate responsibility because, while the market has encouraged more and more organizations to act responsibly, market forces have not always been sufficient to ensure such behavior.

In many cases, such responsible organizations may incur higher costs, allowing competitors to gain market share.

Advantages and Disadvantages

The principle underlying the analysis is that before making any decision, a company's management should consider the interests and benefits of its shareholders. The following are the benefits of SHV analysis:

  • It offers a long-term financial perspective on which to base strategic decisions.
  • It provides a universal approach that is not bound by the accounting policies that are used. As a result, it is globally applicable and can be applied across industries.
  • It forces the organization to concentrate on the future and its customers, precisely the value of future cash flows.

However, the following are the disadvantages of the analysis:

  • Future cash flow estimation, a critical component of SVA, can be extremely difficult to complete accurately. This can result in incorrect or misleading figures serving as the foundation for strategic decisions.
  • The system's development and implementation can be time-consuming and complicated.
  • Management of SHV necessitates more detailed data than traditional measures.

Conclusion

To summarize, shareholder value is more than just a simple organizational strategy; it is a management philosophy that reflects the company's overall success, providing managers with a clear mission and facilitating decision-making. 

An essential tool for improving this managerial approach is shareholder value analysis.

This provides managers with all of the principles required to consider shareholder benefit before making any decisions and also provides them with practical "steps" to increase the firm's and investors' value from top to bottom.

The SHV approach, on the other hand, frequently requires the estimation of future cash flows by the adjuster, an interest rate is known as the cost of capital, which can be challenging to compute, and the development of such a system can be complex for an organization.

Most companies in the twenty-first century prioritize shareholder value. However, with its assistance, businesses can focus on a broader perspective, evaluating decisions based on current and future environments.     

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Researched and authored by Ranad Rashwan | LinkedIn

Reviewed and Edited by Aditya Salunke I LinkedIn

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