Interviewing For Infrastructure Investment Roles

There seems to be a growing interest in infrastructure on WSO and I've seen a number of posts inquiring about the recruitment / interview process for infrastructure specific funds. I've had a number of people help me out in this area so I thought I'd summarize what I've learned with the hope that someone finds it useful. For those who are thinking about recruiting for a buyside seat in the infrastructure space, you've probably realized that there aren't a lot of infra specific prep resources out there. I'm going to try and cover the broad strokes and hit on things that I think are particularly important, but happy to address more specific questions to the extent that I can. Most of what I will focus on is specific to 'why infra' and the case study as I believe these aspects are really what separate an infrastructure process from a more traditional PE interview.

The intention of this thread is not to provide an overview of infrastructure, but I would encourage anyone who hasn't already to take a look these threads:

Know What You're Looking For

The great thing about infrastructure is that its definition has become so broad. Power & renewables, utilities, airports, toll roads, hospitals, data centres. All infrastructure. As a junior you can get a breadth of industry experience without siloing yourself. However, this can be a bit overwhelming especially if you've never worked your analyst years in infra. My advice for anyone looking to jump into the recruitment process is to have conviction in your story and what strategy you're targeting. There are a ton of large cap players who have generalist programs, but there are also a lot of MM/UMM shops who are refining their strategy into more specific segments of the infrastructure space. As you can imagine, if a shop is running lean it can be fairly challenging to be effective in all areas of the infrastructure spectrum and so these places are choosing to get really smart on 2-3 subsectors. The reason I bring this up is because a lot of the household name megafund infrastructure programs still put a big emphasis on pedigree. There are quite a few MM shops that I've seen hire individuals from less traditional backgrounds and if you can demonstrate your interest in a particular industry / strategy, you can probably position yourself favorably in a process where you're not competing against the BB/EB analyst who went to H/S/W. Of course landing a role at Blackstone Infrastructure would be phenomenal, but there is only a small subset of us here who would get their foot in the door. That being said, the learning opportunities at some of the smaller funds is just as good and these should not be overlooked.

Show Interest

If you're interviewing for an investment role, your interviewer is going to want to see that you can put your investor cap on and speaking intelligently about infrastructure. For those who spent their analyst years in infrastructure, expect to get grilled on the specifics of your deals. This is no different than the expectations that would be set in a more traditional buyout shop interview. If you've spent time in the infra already, you also know the lingo. This is where I think people who haven't worked in the space are behind the 8-ball. If you are really interested in infrastructure but haven't worked in the space before, the bar is naturally going to be set lower heading into a conversation. If you spend the time getting to understand the industry and demonstrate genuine interest in a subset of the space you will stand out. I can't tell you how many people I've seen stumble through a response to 'Why are you interested in infrastructure?' or 'Can you tell me what trends you're following in the infrastructure space?'. You'd think this would be a no brainer, but apparently not. If you haven't worked in infra and can't demonstrate that you've spent any time reading up on the industries that interest you, what reason do I have to push you forward over someone else who can probably hit the ground running? If I see an analyst from a non-related industry group who can talk passionately about infrastructure I'll generally walk away feeling good about that interaction. It's no secret that ambition and curiosity go a long way.

Modelling Test / Case Study

This is where I think the interview process really starts to diverge from your traditional buyout process and where I see most candidates struggle. There are a few different mutations of these case studies, but they generally aim to test the same skills. Before I jump into the specifics, I want to highlight that some infrastructure funds will administer a case study that is akin to what you'd receive at a buyout shop (i.e. your LBO modelling test). The purpose for doing this is that they can assess one's excel capabilities / financing knowledge and not handicap anyone for not having worked in infrastructure before. For those of you who spent your analyst years grinding through project finance and tax equity models, it is worth mentioning that you may want to practice a few of the more traditional LBO-style case studies. While the modelling isn't hard, it is a bit different than what you're used to doing, and under a time crunch you want to be sure that you aren't putting yourself at a disadvantage.

Case Study Type 1: Traditional LBO

As mentioned above, some of the bigger funds have been known to administer the LBO style modelling test. Typically you are provided with 3-4 hours to complete this test where you would be asked to build a 3 statement LBO model accompanied by a powerpoint deck. There are a ton of guides out there on how to complete these and numerous threads with individuals trading old cases.


If you've never built an infrastructure model a lot of what I'm about to say isn't going to make any sense. Totally normal, but you have some work to do. Ed Bodmer has a video for basically everything project finance / infrastructure modelling related. You can find his resources here:

Case Study Type 2A: Short Form Construction Stage Infrastructure Model

This is a fairly common infrastructure modelling test where you will also be provided 3-4 hours to complete a model and presentation. Within this type of case, there are three mutations of a case study that I've seen. The first mutation, what I'll call "Type 2A" is a construction stage, fully/partially contracted infrastructure asset. In this type of case study you will be given some or all of the following assumptions and be asked to model out returns. This is an example of an actual prompt I received for an infrastructure test (I can't remember the exact numbers so I'm using dummy figures to get my point across)

  • Assume you are a developer who is constructing a solar asset with a 1 year construction timeline and an asset that will have a 30 year useful life
  • The cost to construct this solar asset is $500mm spread evenly over a 12 month period
  • The project has a nameplate capacity of 200MW and the asset will expect to produce power at a gross capacity factor of 30%. Assume degradation of 0.25% per year.
  • The asset has arranged a 15-year power purchase agreement at $100/MWh without any escalation. Assume the post-contracted pricing for the power produced after the expiry of the PPA is $85 in real 2022 dollars escalated at inflation.
  • Opex for the project is contracted under a full wrap EPC at $25mm per year escalated at inflation.
  • Assume a tax rate of 25%
  • Assume the asset is depreciated on a straight line basis over the useful life
  • Assume that you procure a construction facility at 70% gearing, which will be refinanced by a long-term debt facility sculpted to contracted cash flows at 1.30x DSCR (interest rates for the facilities will typically be provided)

Based on this information, you would be asked to build out the construction spend profile, the construction debt draw downs, an operating model consisting of the generation profile, tax & depreciation, sculpt the long term debt that is used to refinance the construction loan, and calculate returns / sensitivities. The amount of time you are allotted will vary based on the complexity of the prompt. This type of test can also be based on a concession based asset with an availability payment (e.g. a toll road concession P3 with a government). 

Case Study Type 2B: Short Form Operating Stage Infrastructure Model

This version of the case study is a bit easier. Generally the assumptions are very similar to what you'd get provided above, except you are modelling out the acquisition of an operating asset. In prompts like this that I've seen, you'll typically be given the assumptions required to build out the operating model, and then will get asked to sculpt a back leverage financing to get to some form of a post-tax levered return. Based on the assumptions provided you'll get asked to back into what you would pay to acquire the equity in the project given a return requirement of xyz%.

Case Study 2C: Long Form Infrastructure Model

This version of the case study will typically span over a weekend where you'll have 48 hours to build a model and prepare a more fulsome set of presentation materials. Basically a mock IC presentation. In instances where these prompts have been issued, it's typically the build of a financial model to value a publicly traded name. In order to occupy two days of someone's time, you generally need quite a bit of information and so going with a public name is easier. In this instance you generally won't have to build an infrastructure-like model described in 2A/2B above, and can focus on a more traditional DCF / public comps analysis. Generally the infrastructure names that you'd be given are operating platforms so you are valuing a broader company as opposed to a specific asset. I've actually seen a fund prompt candidates with a 1 week timeline to complete a case with materials comprising of 20+ slides. This is rather excessive and definitely not the norm.

Career Longevity

Not specific to the interview process, but I thought I'd provide some additional color on why I think this space is great to be in from a career longevity perspective. Infrastructure is seeing significant growth right now, and there are various pockets that can expect to benefit from decade long tailwinds, particularly in light of medium-long term carbon reduction targets. From a macro lens, the broader sector that underpins your job is incredibly stable, which is great to hear for us risk-averse PE lemmings. From a micro/job specific lens, because the technical skillset you develop in infrastructure is a bit more niche, it becomes less common for these platforms to develop a two-and-out program. It's a lot more efficient to train up an associate and promote them. You'll also find that a lot of infrastructure funds don't often hire MBA grads for this reason and typically promote from within. I've seen a lot of mid-to-senior level lifers who never pursued the MBA because they were just promoted directly. This is a trend that I think is becoming more common in buyout funds as well, so maybe not an infrastructure thing.


I'll pause here for now, but hopefully some of you who are interested in pursuing an investing career in infrastructure find this useful. Happy to answer any questions or expand on areas which I may have glossed over.

Comments (63)

Mar 22, 2022 - 9:57am
afsfasf, what's your opinion? Comment below:

This is incredibly helpful thanks for writing. Wondering if there is some overlap between industrial and infrastructure funds and can industrial bankers recruit for infra funds?


  • Incoming Analyst in PE - Other
Mar 22, 2022 - 4:36pm

Do you think it's possible for someone who works in secondary/co-investing space in infrastructure to go to a more direct role if they have some modeling experience or banking is basically required?

Mar 22, 2022 - 9:39pm
Pierogi Equities, what's your opinion? Comment below:

Fantastic writeup, I always try to read everything infra related on WSO.

One question I had, and this is going to be somewhat difficult to answer since infra overall is so broad, but what are some ways to better follow trends about what's going on in the space? Obviously each subsector (healthcare, telecoms, power/utilities, transportation, etc.) is going to be drastically different, but what are some news sources or anything of that nature that you follow to learn more about the way things are going? It's a niche enough space still that articles in WSJ and whatnot are pretty rare.

Quant (ˈkwänt) n: An expert, someone who knows more and more about less and less until they know everything about nothing.

  • 3
Most Helpful
Mar 22, 2022 - 10:24pm
losing interest, what's your opinion? Comment below:

Thanks, I really appreciate that. I've been spoiled if I'm being honest - I had access to Infrastructure Investor and InframationNews since my analyst days which is where you get a lot of information on deals being closed and funds being raised. I also had access to a lot of proprietary thought leadership through my previous role, and in my current role banks are always pitching ideas and sending industry reports to us. I empathize with the fact that there isn't a lot out there that is free... if I had to try and find trends or something along those lines without my fund's resources at my disposal, I think the first place I would look to are investor presentations from one of the larger funds that are publicly traded (i.e. Brookfield, Macquarie, etc.). Typically these larger funds are first movers and trend setters so they'd be a good starting point outside of scrubbing the generic news outlets as you've mentioned.   

Mar 23, 2022 - 3:25am
Ironuts, what's your opinion? Comment below:

Thanks for the write up.

Any thoughts on the challenges and best approach to moving into an Infrastructure Equity Fund from a large international Sponsor/government procurer? Particularly at Director/Senior level?

Mar 23, 2022 - 8:48pm
losing interest, what's your opinion? Comment below:

Not particular to infrastructure, but I think the general rule of thumb is that as you become more senior it becomes increasingly challenging to move roles especially if you are looking transition into something different. It's somewhat difficult for me to opine on your situation because there are a number of different roles within government functions that facilitate the procurement process on infrastructure assets. Without any context I would say that you have to play to your strengths. I've seen a number of individuals at a more senior level move from transaction finance-type roles at advisory firms or government entities to LMM infrastructure funds, albeit taking a haircut on title. Depending on the role I think there is some overlap in skillset when it comes to managing workstreams, marking up legal documents, reviewing P3 financial models, etc. To make a direct lateral move at a director level, I think you'd have to demonstrate your ability to source and lead transactions, which is not realistic coming from, what is my interpretation of, your background.

  • Analyst 1 in IB - Cov
Mar 23, 2022 - 12:12pm

Hi, really appreciate you making this, I have a bit of a unique situation in that I'm not coming from an industrials or infrastructure coverage group, however, from a LatAm group at a BB, I work frequently with infra since this is the main line of business in the region so I understand PPPs and all the related infra jargon and regulations, I also speak the relevant languages for the region, I'm a non-target though, so what do you think would be the best form of entry for someone like me? Thanks again for making this post.

Mar 23, 2022 - 9:01pm
losing interest, what's your opinion? Comment below:

I think you're in a good spot - being in a generalist group isn't a bad thing, especially if you're interested in pursuing infrastructure and have gotten infrastructure experience. You've got a BB brand name on your CV and it sounds like you speak Spanish, which definitely works in your favor. I wouldn't worry about being a "non-target". Sure it might be harder to get an interview at some top MF's, but it isn't impossible and there are a ton of funds who would give you a look based on what you've described. 

Mar 23, 2022 - 9:14pm
infinite218, what's your opinion? Comment below:

Hey, thanks for making this! I'm starting a process soon and in one of my initial interviews, was told to prepare paper/pen/calculator. Do you have any idea what kind of math questions might be asked in an infra fund interview as opposed to corporate PE?

  • Intern in IB - Cov
Mar 24, 2022 - 12:53am

Really appreciate the write-up! It was very insightful. I'm curious if it's common/ difficult for energy/ Houston IB analysts from top BBs/EBs to pursue an exit into the broader Infra funds that you mentioned. I am interested in the feasibility of transitioning into Infrastructure on the buy-side.

Mar 24, 2022 - 1:05pm
losing interest, what's your opinion? Comment below:

Can't speak to the feasibility or the difficulty of making that move because I haven't gone through it, but I have seen this done on multiple occasions. Anecdotally it's been analysts from top banks in Houston joining large cap infrastructure platforms. There are two factors that come to mind when I think about why this is: 1) there is likely a smaller pool of energy bankers interested in infrastructure and so naturally the pool of energy bankers represented in infrastructure is going to be lower and 2) large cap platforms that recruit on cycle are generally more open to bankers from different industries so long as they check a number of the boxes (top school, grades, brand name bank, etc.). Off the top of my head I can't think of anyone in my circle who has made that move to a MM fund, but nothing is impossible.

Mar 24, 2022 - 10:38pm
boss19, what's your opinion? Comment below:

Thank you for the response and information! Looking forward to starting off my career in HOU IB and exploring from there.

  • Associate 1 in PE - Other
Mar 24, 2022 - 2:59pm

Have seen this move multiple times (from MM-ish banks so assuming BB/EB move would be simpler). Echoing OP's comments, having that energy (not renewable) skillset is not that common at top infra shops but still there (look at Brookfield/GIP associate classes). Also, funds are still looking at midstream opps given potential dislocation due to ESG-related outflows from the sector and the need to ensure energy resilience in the U.S.

Mar 25, 2022 - 1:50pm
losing interest, what's your opinion? Comment below:

This definitely isn't common and I personally only know one person who has moved over from MBB to a mid-market infra shop. I think infrastructure investing generally places less focus on operational strategy, which is where an MBB consultant can probably provide more value. I also just did a quick Linkedin search for anyone living in NYC who currently works at the usual large cap suspects, who has identified that they work on the infra platform, and who was previously employed at McK, BCG and Bain and didn't see anyone who went Consultant/BA > ASO1. Would defer to anyone else who has made different observations. All that to say though I don't think it's an impossible move to make - infrastructure isn't rocket science and with adequate preparation and networking I don't see any reason why you wouldn't be qualified to do the job.

  • Analyst 1 in IB - Cov
Mar 25, 2022 - 2:29pm

Thanks for the write up. Have you seen people make the jump to infra funds from Public Finance? My team focuses on P3 projects in the transportation space mostly. 

  • Analyst 2 in IB - Cov
Mar 28, 2022 - 8:12pm

Good write up. Not to hijack but am joining an MF's infra fund this summer and happy to answer any questions as well. Currently AN2 at a BB in NY in a non-infra coverage group.

  • Prospect in IB - Gen
Apr 11, 2022 - 9:37pm

How do you transfer from a non-infra coverage group to an infra fund? I would think they'd only hire from P&U/Transpo groups. How did you sell them?

  • Associate 1 in PE - LBOs
Apr 12, 2022 - 1:49am

many of the MFs hire from all coverage groups since their mandate is so broad, especially with the explosion of digital infra. for example, if you look at team pages you'll see a lot of people with TMT / tech investing (warburg, silver lake, etc.) backgrounds. i imagine those with narrower mandates (e.g. pension funds) are more focused on traditional infra backgrounds.

in terms of selling them, i think if you show an interest in the macro space, as well as an understanding of what infra is (and isn't) you should be good to go. at the end of the day, a platform is a platform, whether in infra, consumer, healthcare, or any other space. 

Apr 11, 2022 - 6:52pm
RB2000, what's your opinion? Comment below:


I most likely have an interview for a 2022 FT role with for an Infrastructure group coming up. I am currently an undergraduate student with very little/no experience in infrastructure. I was told to be prepared for technicals and a possible case study.

The case prep seems like it is targetted towards experienced hires. Any changes to your advice for an undergrad?


Apr 11, 2022 - 9:40pm
lamron, what's your opinion? Comment below:

I just went thru an infra PE process (got offer) and can help you out with a mock interview + some general advice. 

PM me if you're interested, no pressure.

Apr 12, 2022 - 9:24pm
fidnevejsjd, what's your opinion? Comment below:

Do you think it would be possible to move towards the industry after business school if I worked in a sales/trading role adjacent to the infra team at a bank (hedging rates/FX for most projects we lend to)?

Apr 29, 2022 - 1:23pm
losing interest, what's your opinion? Comment below:

I would say that it would probably be pretty difficult. Typically most post-MBA associate / senior associate roles are given to candidates who have previous infrastructure, PE or relevant M&A experience. Typically on any given mandate, the extent to which we would interact with a group like yours is to lock in a rate hedge on a financing or hedge fx on something cross-border. Someone reviewing your profile at an infrastructure fund is likely going to come to the conclusion that there isn't much overlap between your role and what you would do at an infra fund. Never say never though!

Apr 29, 2022 - 8:33pm
fidnevejsjd, what's your opinion? Comment below:

This is very helpful to understand where I sit. I will try to switch to the financing side at my bank and go from there. Thanks for your advice.

  • Prospect in IB - Cov
Apr 21, 2022 - 11:03pm

I have a first round with a secondary infra group and this helps out a lot. Even if I don't get the role this definitely helped me get a better idea of what infra is like so thank you, cheers.

Apr 29, 2022 - 1:26pm
losing interest, what's your opinion? Comment below:

There are quite a few resources out there offered by the training platforms, but they're kind of expensive. F1F9 and Corality are popular ones and I think offer individual seats for in-person group lessons where they'd tour major cities and run 3-4 day programs. This was pre-pandemic though so I'm not sure if they still run these.

Separately, the Ed-Bodmer resource which I've linked in my original post is about as good as it gets when it comes to free modelling resources. Ed covers basically every topic under the sun and is a great place to start.

  • Associate 1 in PE - LBOs
Apr 29, 2022 - 11:07pm

Ed Bodmer is good with some neat Excel tricks (ALT + EIS being one) but a bit disorganized. When I really wanted to get good at modelling, I remember I just went through a ton of his videos and took notes - treated it like a course (in my first year of banking). 

No better practice than actually being in the model with a MD coaxing you on the phone though

  • Associate 1 in PE - LBOs
Apr 29, 2022 - 10:59pm

Good thread. Biased because I wrote out most of the answers here but would add this as a link in regards to some hopefully helpful discourse on framing valuation with an infra asset:

Apr 30, 2022 - 1:52pm
Vaggklocka, what's your opinion? Comment below:

Thanks for the very insightful post! What do you think are the most critical skillsets to develop/have for someone who wants to break into infrastructure?

Also, do you mind to share how's the day to day like for infrastructure investment professional? E.g. what do you don daily basis besides working on financial model?

May 7, 2022 - 2:51am
Thats okay, what's your opinion? Comment below:

I would love to know about the WLB across the different types of infra funds.

infra IB tends to be quite sweaty due to the heavy modelling and legal and technical processes involved. Likewise I've seen top fund such as KKR/stonepeak to top pension funds just as OTPP and omers working insane hours constantly which is probably not something I find personally sustainable.

however I've seen people at lesser known pension funds, smaller PE shops , infrastructure arms of insurance companies, sovereign wealth funds have great hours with less pay. Also potentially in the infrastructure private debt space (although know less about this area)

would love to hear your thoughts 

May 7, 2022 - 10:44pm
losing interest, what's your opinion? Comment below:

Good question - I would say that some of the reasons you've listed that cause infra IB to be sweaty are also applicable to the buyside. The WLB at any given fund is going to almost always correlated directly to strategy / appetite to deploy capital and there are pros and cons to this. If you work at a fund that is trying to aggressively deploy capital are you going to get a great experience? Yes, mostly likely. Will you get paid a lot? Probably otherwise how will these places attract talent. Are you going to work a lot? You bet. Is it sustainable? Depends, but I would agree with you and say probably not...

Some of the lesser known pension funds likely don't have the capacity to do direct investing and do mostly co-invest/fund investing which is less demanding in comparison to diligencing an actual business. Smaller PE shops tend to look at things with a bit more hair on them and don't necessarily do as many deals which could result in better hours. SWF - depends on the fund, I've heard some groups are sweatier than others. All else equal credit in general tends to have better hours based on my understanding. 

Everyone is going to have different career and life objectives - the fact of the matter is if you want a good experience in the infra space you're probably going to have to grind for a few years. My personal view on this is if you want a long term career in infra, I think you should put in 4-6 years and get a solid experience and brand. If you really like what you're doing you can stick it out and make great coin, but if you decide you want more WLB you can take a step back and find another role in the space with a strategy that isn't as demanding on resources.

  • Analyst 1 in IB - Gen
May 25, 2022 - 6:01pm

Thanks for the write-up. Can you speak about exits from MF/UMM infra funds? If the associates find out later they want to do generalist PE or HF instead, how difficult would the transition be?  

May 25, 2022 - 11:47pm
losing interest, what's your opinion? Comment below:

It really depends on the platform you work in. As an extreme example, if you're working in a sector specific platform that only invests in renewables you may have a hard time moving to a corporate PE / HF role because the way you would evaluate those types of investments is different. If you worked in a generalist role where the definition of infrastructure and private equity are blurred, you likely won't encounter any issues trying to make the switch (I've seen it happen many times).   

  • Intern in IB - Cov
May 25, 2022 - 11:03pm

Any chance you could shed some light on OMERS / OTPP Infra teams / anything you know about them? Would greatly appreciate it.

May 26, 2022 - 12:07am
losing interest, what's your opinion? Comment below:

Happy to provide some high level thoughts based on what I've heard. Anyone with better information please feel free to correct me, and don't quote me on any of this as it could be outdated.

OTPP's infrastructure team is primarily based out of Toronto and London, UK. I would say they are probably the most active out of all of the Canadian pension funds on the direct side, and if I was juggling offers between the Canadians, I'd take it over OMERS or CPPIB. I say this because OTPP are generalists on the infra side whereas CPPIB bifurcated its renewables/energy transition investments and their core infra group, so your sector experience may be handicapped; the latter group also has major toll road concentration which could dictate sector focus in the near-medium term if you joined them. I still think OTPP buckets infra and NR into the same team, but I don't have any purview into the nuances of their team structure to be able to comment on what kind of exposure you'd get. If you plan on being in Toronto they are also moving from North York to downtown if you ascribe any value to that. Based on my understanding, I think OTPP is also more advanced in its approach to managing its portfolio with the advancements they've made in building their value creation team. 

OMERS also does a lot of direct investing in the infra space, but their platform isn't as robust as OTPP. They have also had quite a bit of turnover in recent time which probably isn't a good thing. They have a strong presence in NYC as well. I don't believe they have the equivalent of a value creation team and IP's are responsible for asset management to my knowledge. Apparently OMERS also used to offer carried interest on the funds they managed but I've heard through the grapevine that this structure may be changing.

If you have any specific questions I can try to be more direct, but hopefully this gives you something to chew on for now.

May 27, 2022 - 9:47pm
Pierogi Equities, what's your opinion? Comment below:

On the topic of the Canadians, do you happen to know anything about PSP's infra practice?

Quant (ˈkwänt) n: An expert, someone who knows more and more about less and less until they know everything about nothing.

Jun 1, 2022 - 6:41pm
007en, what's your opinion? Comment below:

Anyone interested in sharing costs on WSP project finance course? Heard it's pretty good

Regards, 007
Jun 13, 2022 - 12:45pm
Temple-Raptor, what's your opinion? Comment below:

Awesome post! Infrastructure PE has always been a dream of mine but for now I've been working in DCM commercial real estate. Do you think I could transition to infra PE after completing my MBA? I've heard that real estate modeling is similar to infrastructure modeling. My firm specializes in industrial, large retail, and multi family properties. Would appreciate any advice! Thank u.

Jun 13, 2022 - 9:38pm
losing interest, what's your opinion? Comment below:

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Jun 16, 2022 - 9:33pm
Pierogi Equities, what's your opinion? Comment below:

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Quant (ˈkwänt) n: An expert, someone who knows more and more about less and less until they know everything about nothing.

Jun 19, 2022 - 7:20pm
lyricalmania0, what's your opinion? Comment below:

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