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I was writing an email to a fellow monkey who is about to start as a banking analyst in the summer. It's been a little over 5 yrs now since I was a wee young first-year analyst in restructuring for one of the Moelis/Houlihan/Evercore type firms (I call them the firms where most people will still say "What?" and sort of nod their heads when you tell them where you work - thanks for validating my 80 hour work week - anyways moving on).

I really like mentoring and sharing knowledge for future generations - a lot of people have helped me along the way, and still are, and I really like WSO in general - there are giant gold nuggets all over this site from which I have benefited so I thought it's high time to throw one back in the pit.

Here's what I wish I knew as a first year analyst:

1) Your performance from day 1 matters.

So, prepare as much as you can beforehand. Ask (politely) if your future colleagues can send you some pitches/other helpful materials and start working on your excel, formatting, attention to detail. Keep your Outlook box tidy and have a folder for every single deal - learn to back up your email box. Have a good system for knowing where each file is. Always carry a notebook and your HP12C, and learn to use that little calculator really really well. That thing can run a full DCF in seconds if you know what you are doing. Especially if you work in debt, know how to use the financial functions (I, PMT, PV, FV, n).

2) For your first 3 months you will be a burden - just try to be a small burden. Don't spin your wheels, ever - Associates hate when their analyst is sitting there fumbling and stymied. Don't ask questions that you haven't at least tried to think through yourself - but once you've thought them through, don't be afraid to ask. Write down everything so you remember what you learned and don't have to ask again.

Get close with a good Associate/Sr. Analyst - tell them you just really want to do well and look to them for areas to improve BEFORE your midyear/full year reviews. Your first midyear review will likely be pretty pointless, unless you've done something really bad, but keep the year-end review in mind and realize people's memories are much shorter than you think, so a good 3 months leading into the review can make up for quite a bit of mediocre performance. Bankers love to see when people have really "stepped it up" - it validates that their criticism did something and that you aren't afraid to improve and take advice well.

3) If you want to someday go to the buyside, think of that from day 1 as well. Start talking now with people who are where you want to be in 2-5 years time. Figure out where past analysts have gone and how. You can jump after 1 year, 2 yrs, or later - but realize it might get tougher later on. You will need to teach yourself how to model quick and dirty - prepping for HF/PE buyside interviews is serious, serious business. I could write a whole article just on that process.

4) Be thinking about whether you want to go to grad school, and where, and what experiences will help that cause. Keep detailed records of the things you do - because you're about to do so many things, that you will inevitably forget some of the best ones. 2 yrs at a non-incredibly-amazing firm is not likely to get you into HSW, even with a good GMAT - a better track is to target 4-6 years of work experience and have a non-banking role in between - PE, work for a startup, go do microfinance in Tunisia, whatever you like really - just something to distinguish you from all the other bankers - HSW will have plenty of BB IBD kids from target schools to fill their class. If you know you want to go for an MBA eventually, think about taking the GMAT before you are working 80 hours a week. I think the GMAT takes about 2 months of good work for most really to maximize your score (this is another good WIWIK possibility).

5) Before you present important work, ALWAYS print it - errors stick out like sore thumbs on paper and are much easier to find and correct. Take the 5 minutes and print the product before you put it on your boss' desk. Set the tone early that you are simply not a person who makes spelling or formatting errors.

6) On that note, set the print area right away and always run a spell check (yes, Excel has spell check too!)

7) Master your macros - if you have time or inclination before starting, maybe even take some Excel VBA classes online or something - if you are really good with Excel you will be a prized asset. Ask your future colleagues if there is a particular package they use and if they can send it, otherwise maybe use the WSP pack or any macro pack you can find. Remove your F1 key because it will only get in the way. People generally say don't touch your mouse - I mostly agree for Excel, but there are still the few odd things that are quicker with a mouse sometimes. Excel is another potential WIWIK topic.

8) Headhunters want: smart people, who can hold a good conversation, humble, good team players, sharp modeling, who can THINK LIKE INVESTORS - always be thinking like an investor - if you want to do PE/HF later on, this might be your single most important point. Many banking analysts go into PE/HF interviews and have never thought like an investor - they have no conviction in their ideas and their investment theses have little basis. Many BB kids think they are simply entitled to a HF/PE job. Don't be one of those. Do your work. And be a good person. Everyone will have decent technical skills, but if you can strike your headhunter as also being just a super nice and hardworking person, that counts big time.

9) If you want to practice for HFs, pick any public company that doesn't have nightmare financial statements (i.e. don't pick a FIG unless that's your thing), download the latest K and Q, and give yourself 2 hours to make a working 3 statement model with a DCF and a quick LBO analysis. You should be able to get the 3 statement model with 5 yr projections and a balancing balance sheet in 1 hour or less, then do the DCF and LBO in the next half hour, and leave a half hour to check your work.

9b) Be a good person. Don't be a finance 'dick.' Yes you work in investment banking and probably make good money doing it. No that doesn't automatically make you cool. You can be hugely successful and still be a nice guy and down to earth. Take note of the associates and VPs that you really like to work for, and aspire to someday be a person that you yourself would like to work for. Finance is full of jerks and egos - that makes people who are down to earth and really genuinely nice an asset. Find a style that works for you and is true to who you are - you'll have to be firm sometimes, but keep that blade sharp.

10) Adhere to the logic that you can't learn if you aren't listening, and you can't listen if you are talking. Be a good listener. Some bankers and even some analysts are so garrulous that they miss key points, and their words just lose weight over time - they're so eager to say what they know that they just blurt out whatever they know on a subject. You want it so when you speak, people know you have listened, and you're saying something of value. Keep your cards close.

11) Perhaps the most important - figure out who on the Admin end really runs the show. Admins are some of the most powerful people in terms of making your life better as an analyst. Treat your admins with respect and go out of your way to treat them well. Bring up some flowers every once in a while to brighten the reception desk. Pick up a few extra coffees when you run out, and take note which admins like which kinds of coffee. Being a banking admin can be really dreary work sometimes and those little things can brighten their day a lot.

12) Be neat about your reimbursements - I probably lost hundreds to low thousands just by not being prompt/organized about receipts and the like. Get the best possible credit card plan you can find for travel and hotels.

13) Take care of your body - watch the Thursday night cocktails and save it for Friday/Saturday. Oversleep one important call/meeting and you might never recover. Most analysts are vitamin deficient - take a good daily multivitamin and drink water, not red bull. Fish oil is good for keeping your skin/eyes/brain in good shape. Burt's Bees Serum for your face is a god-send - my girlfriend says it looks like I am glowing after I put it on.

14) If you do mess up badly at work - learn from it and get over it. Don't beat yourself up too much. Other people might have a little giggle now and then about your f-up but believe me nobody is thinking about the f-up as much as you think they are. Consider how many of your brainwaves you spend in a typical day thinking about other people. Now get back to work.

15) Many bosses will preach a work-life balance and say things like "This can totally wait until Monday." But they will still be more impressed if you did it over the weekend and give it to them Monday morning. Figure out who those bosses are.

I think those are the main ones - I'll probably think of more here and there and I'm sure tons of other users have some great things to add. Any questions/thoughts let me know.

Cheers
frgna

117 2

Comments (129)

  • blastoise's picture
  • JWR34's picture

    Fantastic thread and great advice for anyone about to go into an SA stint as well.

  • cogitoergognome's picture

    Great post. Thanks.

  • Brouhaha's picture

    Wow, awesome post. Would love to see a WIWIK for Excel/modeling/etc.!

  • D M's picture

    Great post, SB for ya

    "You stop being an asshole when it sucks to be you." -IlliniProgrammer
    "Your grammar made me wish I'd been aborted." -happypantsmcgee

  • frgna's picture

    No problem folks.

    One thing I forgot to mention - live on your base, bank your bonus, at least for the first 3-5 yrs. After that you can put your saved bonuses into whatever - house, etc. But always try to live one or two rungs below your means. If you're thinking of grad school you'll thank yourself later. In finance, money=freedom, so don't build a lifestyle that will lock you into a job you don't love. The brand new BMW can wait until you are 26.

    Also, unless you just have a really naturally good memory (some do), really make an effort to "study" key details about your engagements. Memorize all the coupon dates and maturities of the tranches of debt, know the capital structure cold, memorize historical revenue and EBITDA and capex etc. for the last few years. Know which comparables are the most comparable in your valuation by geography and revenue composition/size and business type.

    if you like it then you shoulda put a banana on it

  • duffmt6's picture

    Great stuff. SB to you good sir.

    "For I am a sinner in the hands of an angry God. Bloody Mary full of vodka, blessed are you among cocktails. Pray for me now and at the hour of my death, which I hope is soon. Amen."

  • M12345's picture

    This was a really really good post man. Wish I'd read something similar for S&T before I started working!

  • mr.b's picture

    as someone starting ft this summer, I really appreciated this post - one of the best i've read on this site

  • neilol's picture

    5) Before you present important work, ALWAYS print it - errors stick out like sore thumbs on paper and are much easier to find and correct. Take the 5 minutes and print the product before you put it on your boss' desk. Set the tone early that you are simply not a person who makes spelling or formatting errors.

    Gold - sounds dumb but its important

  • eleutheros's picture
  • aempirei's picture

    Good advice. Now I just need the offer to put this into practice.

    My name is Nicky, but you can call me Dre.

  • SirTradesaLot's picture

    Nicely done.

    adapt or die wrote:
    What would P.T. Barnum say about you?

    MY BLOG

  • TheKid1's picture

    frgna wrote:

    Your first midyear review will likely be pretty pointless, unless you've done something really bad, but keep the year-end review in mind and realize people's memories are much shorter than you think, so a good 3 months leading into the review can make up for quite a bit of mediocre performance. Bankers love to see when people have really "stepped it up" - it validates that their criticism did something and that you aren't afraid to improve and take advice well.

    5) Before you present important work, ALWAYS print it - errors stick out like sore thumbs on paper and are much easier to find and correct. Take the 5 minutes and print the product before you put it on your boss' desk. Set the tone early that you are simply not a person who makes spelling or formatting errors.

    The first one made me feel better as I just started at boutique last month and keep screwing up, Sr.Analyst said I've gotten better but make mistakes.

    5). I always print it but don't always catch same details like periods and such and sometimes big ones--- Any way to improve on this? Its really annoying and I'm kicking myself in the end.

  • In reply to ghandi
    frgna's picture

    ghandi wrote:
    elaborate on the Burt's Bees Serum

    http://bit.ly/XvtXac :) It's these little drops, you put 4-5 drops in your palm and apply to your face. Helps with wrinkles, pale skin, baggy eyes, etc - really good stuff and lasts a long time.

    if you like it then you shoulda put a banana on it

  • In reply to TheKid1
    frgna's picture

    TheKid1 wrote:
    frgna wrote:

    Your first midyear review will likely be pretty pointless, unless you've done something really bad, but keep the year-end review in mind and realize people's memories are much shorter than you think, so a good 3 months leading into the review can make up for quite a bit of mediocre performance. Bankers love to see when people have really "stepped it up" - it validates that their criticism did something and that you aren't afraid to improve and take advice well.

    5) Before you present important work, ALWAYS print it - errors stick out like sore thumbs on paper and are much easier to find and correct. Take the 5 minutes and print the product before you put it on your boss' desk. Set the tone early that you are simply not a person who makes spelling or formatting errors.

    The first one made me feel better as I just started at boutique last month and keep screwing up, Sr.Analyst said I've gotten better but make mistakes.

    5). I always print it but don't always catch same details like periods and such and sometimes big ones--- Any way to improve on this? Its really annoying and I'm kicking myself in the end.

    Would help if you could elaborate a bit on the mistakes but here are a few tips.

    One thing, for emails, if you want to make sure they're right, literally read them out loud to yourself quickly. Will also help your writing. Also leave the 'to' boxes empty until you are ready to send.

    Second, have another peer analyst quickly look at it (esp one you know is really good at details). Always run the spell check and take note of your common errors. You can do a ctrl+f's and search for common errors. These are things like not being consistent in word lists (search for the word "and" or ", and" depending on your convention) and spacing after periods.

    For an excel model, always look to your numbers and ask, does this make sense? I had an interest calc once where I was trying to do some fancy compounding and the number should have been like 3% of principal but it was more like 30%, and my associate caught it right away.

    Steps for excel:
    1) F2 through each formula and hardcode and make sure the formulas look consistent - often times people just copy and paste the wrong formula. Also see my trick below. Run a spell check.
    2) Print it, and then go through it, left to right, top to bottom, and make sure all the numbers make visual sense. Senior bankers are really good at finding numbers that don't look right. Use your calculator to check things that might seem off.
    3) Talk through the sheet to yourself once - try to pretend you are presenting it to your boss. Anticipate his questions and be ready to answer odd things.

    *****My single favorite tip for Excel: hit F5, then Alt+s, then O, then X, then G, then E, and press enter. This will select all of the hardcoded aka data entry (i.e. non-formula) cells.

    All of the highlighted cells should be blue (hardcodes). If you see something highlighted and it's not blue, look at it. If you see something blue, and it's not highlighted, look at it.

    This is also the really quick way to turn an all-black font sheet into a properly formatted sheet.

    if you like it then you shoulda put a banana on it

  • In reply to Fundamentally Undervalued
    frgna's picture

    Fundamentally Undervalued wrote:
    gold

    ps: wtf is a wiwik?

    It's a "What I Wish I Knew" - the WSO guys smartly retitled my original post :)

    if you like it then you shoulda put a banana on it

  • In reply to frgna
    Oreos's picture

    frgna wrote:

    *****My single favorite tip for Excel: hit F5, then Alt+s, then O, then X, then G, then E, and press enter. This will select all of the hardcoded aka data entry (i.e. non-formula) cells.

    All of the highlighted cells should be blue (hardcodes). If you see something highlighted and it's not blue, look at it. If you see something blue, and it's not highlighted, look at it.


    GOLD

    .

  • In reply to frgna
    Otter.'s picture

    frgna wrote:

    One thing, for emails, if you want to make sure they're right, literally read them out loud to yourself quickly. Will also help your writing. Also leave the 'to' boxes empty until you are ready to send.

    This is best practice for anyone starting out, or really anyone period.

    My strategy is to always write my e-mails with the e-mail addresses in the subject line instead of in the "To" line until I'm actually ready to send. This is especially important if you're using Excel and have CTRL+ENTER as a shortcut to send e-mails like I do (I think it's the default shortcut). I've forgotten to do this a few times and have sent half-complete e-mails by accident. It's never been anything that's been too embarrassing, but it still just looks sloppy. Gmail has the "Undo" function but Outlook doesn't have anything similar to my knowledge. If it does, please enlighten me.

    Hi, Eric Stratton, rush chairman, damn glad to meet you.

  • chrisjr's picture

    Great post frnga - really applicable to my workplace and good to keep a list like this to constantly remind yourself of things to work on.

    One question, do you have any links or videos that go into more detail on this: 9) If you want to practice for HFs, pick any public company that doesn't have nightmare financial statements (i.e. don't pick a FIG unless that's your thing), download the latest K and Q, and give yourself 2 hours to make a working 3 statement model with a DCF and a quick LBO analysis. You should be able to get the 3 statement model with 5 yr projections and a balancing balance sheet in 1 hour or less, then do the DCF and LBO in the next half hour, and leave a half hour to check your work.

    I need to work on this, a lot.

  • In reply to frgna
    Plato's picture

    frgna wrote:
    TheKid1 wrote:
    frgna wrote:

    Your first midyear review will likely be pretty pointless, unless you've done something really bad, but keep the year-end review in mind and realize people's memories are much shorter than you think, so a good 3 months leading into the review can make up for quite a bit of mediocre performance. Bankers love to see when people have really "stepped it up" - it validates that their criticism did something and that you aren't afraid to improve and take advice well.

    5) Before you present important work, ALWAYS print it - errors stick out like sore thumbs on paper and are much easier to find and correct. Take the 5 minutes and print the product before you put it on your boss' desk. Set the tone early that you are simply not a person who makes spelling or formatting errors.

    The first one made me feel better as I just started at boutique last month and keep screwing up, Sr.Analyst said I've gotten better but make mistakes.

    5). I always print it but don't always catch same details like periods and such and sometimes big ones--- Any way to improve on this? Its really annoying and I'm kicking myself in the end.

    Would help if you could elaborate a bit on the mistakes but here are a few tips.

    One thing, for emails, if you want to make sure they're right, literally read them out loud to yourself quickly. Will also help your writing. Also leave the 'to' boxes empty until you are ready to send.

    Second, have another peer analyst quickly look at it (esp one you know is really good at details). Always run the spell check and take note of your common errors. You can do a ctrl+f's and search for common errors. These are things like not being consistent in word lists (search for the word "and" or ", and" depending on your convention) and spacing after periods.

    For an excel model, always look to your numbers and ask, does this make sense? I had an interest calc once where I was trying to do some fancy compounding and the number should have been like 3% of principal but it was more like 30%, and my associate caught it right away.

    Steps for excel:
    1) F2 through each formula and hardcode and make sure the formulas look consistent - often times people just copy and paste the wrong formula. Also see my trick below. Run a spell check.
    2) Print it, and then go through it, left to right, top to bottom, and make sure all the numbers make visual sense. Senior bankers are really good at finding numbers that don't look right. Use your calculator to check things that might seem off.
    3) Talk through the sheet to yourself once - try to pretend you are presenting it to your boss. Anticipate his questions and be ready to answer odd things.

    *****My single favorite tip for Excel: hit F5, then Alt+s, then O, then X, then G, then E, and press enter. This will select all of the hardcoded aka data entry (i.e. non-formula) cells.

    All of the highlighted cells should be blue (hardcodes). If you see something highlighted and it's not blue, look at it. If you see something blue, and it's not highlighted, look at it.

    This is also the really quick way to turn an all-black font sheet into a properly formatted sheet.

    This is what makes WSO such a tremendous resource. Thanks for the tips.

  • HOVA's picture

    frgna wrote:
    prepping for HF/PE buyside interviews is serious, serious business. I could write a whole article just on that process.

    Very interested. Great post.

  • animalz's picture

    damn... thank you!

    *googling up Burt's Bees Serum"

  • alphasilverback's picture

    good stuff.....thanks for posting

    We can't rely on anyone these days, we just have to do things ourselves don't we?

  • In reply to Otter.
    Bismarck's picture

    Otter. wrote:
    frgna wrote:

    One thing, for emails, if you want to make sure they're right, literally read them out loud to yourself quickly. Will also help your writing. Also leave the 'to' boxes empty until you are ready to send.

    This is best practice for anyone starting out, or really anyone period.

    My strategy is to always write my e-mails with the e-mail addresses in the subject line instead of in the "To" line until I'm actually ready to send. This is especially important if you're using Excel and have CTRL+ENTER as a shortcut to send e-mails like I do (I think it's the default shortcut). I've forgotten to do this a few times and have sent half-complete e-mails by accident. It's never been anything that's been too embarrassing, but it still just looks sloppy. Gmail has the "Undo" function but Outlook doesn't have anything similar to my knowledge. If it does, please enlighten me.

    You actually can (kind of) do this.

    You can set up a rule in Outlook that delays the sending of all messages by a defined number of minutes (I've set mine as one). Do it in the Rules wizard.

    Important to include an override though....I have an exception "if the body contains "FASTSEND" so that you can quickly send something to your boss if you're just firing off a quick piece of data.

  • In reply to Bismarck
    Otter.'s picture

    Bismarck wrote:
    Otter. wrote:
    frgna wrote:

    One thing, for emails, if you want to make sure they're right, literally read them out loud to yourself quickly. Will also help your writing. Also leave the 'to' boxes empty until you are ready to send.

    This is best practice for anyone starting out, or really anyone period.

    My strategy is to always write my e-mails with the e-mail addresses in the subject line instead of in the "To" line until I'm actually ready to send. This is especially important if you're using Excel and have CTRL+ENTER as a shortcut to send e-mails like I do (I think it's the default shortcut). I've forgotten to do this a few times and have sent half-complete e-mails by accident. It's never been anything that's been too embarrassing, but it still just looks sloppy. Gmail has the "Undo" function but Outlook doesn't have anything similar to my knowledge. If it does, please enlighten me.

    You actually can (kind of) do this.

    You can set up a rule in Outlook that delays the sending of all messages by a defined number of minutes (I've set mine as one). Do it in the Rules wizard.

    Important to include an override though....I have an exception "if the body contains "FASTSEND" so that you can quickly send something to your boss if you're just firing off a quick piece of data.

    Interesting. That seems like it would work but the amount of e-mails I need to respond to very quickly makes that almost more trouble than it's worth. But good to know it's an option - thanks man.

    Hi, Eric Stratton, rush chairman, damn glad to meet you.

  • coleslaw's picture

    Good advice

    "Those who dare to fail miserably can achieve greatly"

  • NoSoupForYoU's picture

    Awesome post. very good read. was wondering if anyone could recommend some skills/knowledge to try and master before i begin my internship. What programs should i get familiar with? Concepts to know? I just want to make sure i dont go into my internship looking dumb.

  • Amgajewski1's picture

    Great post. It was extremely helpful.

  • Football2Finance's picture

    Speaking of gold nuggets, this is a damn big one

    “Victorious warriors win first and then go to war, while defeated warriors go to war first and then seek to win” - Sun Tzu

  • meabric's picture

    I'd add, if you want to be useful from day 1, learn to spread comps perfectly. I'd pick a recent transaction in the space and then look for fairness materials in the proxy. Once you find some, spread the comp set as of that date and see if you can get the exact same numbers. The other benefit is you will understand common adjustments in this space (i.e. minority interest, EBITDA adjustments, perpetual restructuring charges, etc.) very well, which is a great asset if you are in a coverage group.

  • In reply to Otter.
    milehigh's picture

    Otter. wrote:
    frgna wrote:

    One thing, for emails, if you want to make sure they're right, literally read them out loud to yourself quickly. Will also help your writing. Also leave the 'to' boxes empty until you are ready to send.

    This is best practice for anyone starting out, or really anyone period.

    My strategy is to always write my e-mails with the e-mail addresses in the subject line instead of in the "To" line until I'm actually ready to send. This is especially important if you're using Excel and have CTRL+ENTER as a shortcut to send e-mails like I do (I think it's the default shortcut). I've forgotten to do this a few times and have sent half-complete e-mails by accident. It's never been anything that's been too embarrassing, but it still just looks sloppy. Gmail has the "Undo" function but Outlook doesn't have anything similar to my knowledge. If it does, please enlighten me.

    There's a recall feature, but it only works if the recipient hasn't opened the email yet. If you inadvertently send out an email you want to recall, go to your sent items folder, open up the email in question (double click/enter on it so it opens in a separate window) and then ALT+H,A,T, press enter. However, best practice is to put the email address in last after you've proof read it, as you said.

  • In reply to chrisjr
    frgna's picture

    chrisjr wrote:
    Great post frnga - really applicable to my workplace and good to keep a list like this to constantly remind yourself of things to work on.

    One question, do you have any links or videos that go into more detail on this: 9) If you want to practice for HFs, pick any public company that doesn't have nightmare financial statements (i.e. don't pick a FIG unless that's your thing), download the latest K and Q, and give yourself 2 hours to make a working 3 statement model with a DCF and a quick LBO analysis. You should be able to get the 3 statement model with 5 yr projections and a balancing balance sheet in 1 hour or less, then do the DCF and LBO in the next half hour, and leave a half hour to check your work.

    I need to work on this, a lot.

    Give it a shot, email it to me if/when you get stuck, and I'll let you know what I think of it. I'd basically just say for now, it takes a lot of practice and work. The first time might take you a whole day, or longer. But you'll get faster each time.

    if you like it then you shoulda put a banana on it

  • oowij's picture

    Awesome post, going to have to take that coffee to the admin tip and put it to use.

  • In reply to TheKid1
    Dat Maz's picture

    TheKid1 wrote:
    frgna wrote:

    Your first midyear review will likely be pretty pointless, unless you've done something really bad, but keep the year-end review in mind and realize people's memories are much shorter than you think, so a good 3 months leading into the review can make up for quite a bit of mediocre performance. Bankers love to see when people have really "stepped it up" - it validates that their criticism did something and that you aren't afraid to improve and take advice well.

    5) Before you present important work, ALWAYS print it - errors stick out like sore thumbs on paper and are much easier to find and correct. Take the 5 minutes and print the product before you put it on your boss' desk. Set the tone early that you are simply not a person who makes spelling or formatting errors.

    The first one made me feel better as I just started at boutique last month and keep screwing up, Sr.Analyst said I've gotten better but make mistakes.

    5). I always print it but don't always catch same details like periods and such and sometimes big ones--- Any way to improve on this? Its really annoying and I'm kicking myself in the end.

    Get another set of eyes on it. When you've been working on something long enough, you stop seeing the little errors.

  • MCLittleMonkey's picture
  • rav942's picture

    Thank you really helpful

  • peonturn's picture

    Thanks! Great help even for SA.

  • brainwashed110's picture

    best post i've read on WSO, thank you.

    time is the most precious commodity.

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